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#### Crazy Conversions - Basic Math - grades 5-8

Understanding how to convert between different types of units is one of the most important aspects of working with numbers when measurements are involved. You might be thinking, “That seems much too specific a situation.” However, keep in mind that almost everything that you learn about working with numbers leads up to applying that knowledge to real world applications, where measurements always play a role. Upon completion of this pathway you will learn the basic rules behind the Conversion of Square Units and how you can apply this knowledge to such things as Converting Square Units in the Metric System and Converting Between Square Miles and Square Kilometers.

Concepts: 7

#### Parts of a Cell

Cells make up the bodies of all living entities, from a tiny ant to a colossal whale. The most interesting thing about cells is that almost all of them have the same parts which behave in the same way. For example, all cells share a Nucleus and Mitochondria which dictate how cells behave and the energy they produce, respectively. Upon completion of this pathway, you will gain an understanding of not only what the different parts of cells are but how each individual part functions.

Concepts: 13

At first glance you think that the Midpoint Formula only applies to an x and y-coordinate plane. However, because we can adapt an xy-coordinate plane to model an almost infinite number of situations, the midpoint formula becomes relevant in many real world applications. Finding a Missing Coordinate Using the Midpoint Formula can help us in a number of ways, from: planning the layout of a city to deciding how much flour you should use in a baking recipe. Upon completion of this pathway you will not only gain an understanding of what the midpoint formula is, but how to use it in your everyday life.

Concepts: 6

#### Types of Chemical Reactions

From the chemical reactions which occur in your stomach allowing you to digest food to the chemical reactions which occur in a nuclear reactor producing electricity, chemical reactions are one of the driving forces of your life. An important part of chemistry is predicting the substances that chemical reactions produce. In order to do this, you need to understand how to determine different types of chemical reactions. This pathway summarizes each type for you.

Concepts: 9

#### Simple Machines - Physical Science - grades 11-12

If I asked you what you thought the first machine was, what would you say? For most people when they hear the word machine they think of a contraption with many gears and other moving parts, however the first machines were much simpler than that. The definition of a simple machine is something that changes the direction or amount of force being applied to an object. These can include Levers just like a seesaw or a Wedge/Inclined Plane represented by the slide, both of which can be found in a school playground. Upon completion of this pathway, you will learn about the six types of Simple Machines and understand how they work.

Concepts: 6

#### Animal Kingdoms - Basic Science - grades 6-8

Have you ever wondered what factors make the human body different from other bodies in nature? By understanding what Invertebrates and Vertebrates are we will begin to answer this question. In addition, we will take an in-depth look at different aspects of the human body from the Human Cardiovascular System to the Human Nervous System. Upon completion of this pathway you will gain an understanding of these among other systems in the human body.

Concepts: 7

#### Mars Science Laboratory

Have you ever looked up at the vast night sky and wondered, “Is there anyone else out there? Has there ever been life on worlds other than our own?” To begin answering such questions the Mars Science Lab (MSL) program has launched its latest creation, Curiosity. Curiosity is the latest in a line of Mars rovers, destined for a two year mission to Mars to answer the question, “Has there ever been life on Mars?” But between posing such a question, stating a hypothesis, and either disproving or confirming that hypothesis there are many things to consider. In this pathway we will explore several different aspects of this mission from the Planning stages, to Launch, to landing On the Surface of Mars.

Concepts: 5

#### Box and Whisker Plots - Statistics - grades 9-12

This part of mathematics is dedicated to cat lovers everywhere. Why’s that? Well, the box in a box and whisker plot models the nose of a cat and the Whiskers of a Box Plot model…well a cat’s whiskers. To the dismay of cat lovers that was a lie. In actuality, box and whisker plots are used in statistics as a way to easily display a given set of data in terms of its median, interquartile range, and outliers. Upon completion of this pathway you will not only understand how to interpret a box and whisker plot, but how Calculating a Five Number Summary can help you quickly construct them.

Concepts: 7

#### Macromolecule Structures - Basic Science - grades 10-12

Did you know that giants really do exist? Not the giant monsters that you may have heard of in story books but there are giant molecules called macromolecules. The macromolecules we will discuss exist in the bodies of living creatures and are involved in almost every aspect of bodily functions. Upon completion of this pathway you will understand five different types of macromolecules including: Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic Acids, and Enzymes.

Concepts: 5

#### Mixed Number Mayhem - Basic Math - grades 4-6

Mixed numbers and fractions can be found all around us, from something as simple as a baking recipe to something as complex as designing a space shuttle. So whether you’re a baker or an engineer understanding the rules behind Adding Mixed Numbers or Dividing Mixed Numbers by Fractions can be quite helpful. Upon completion of this pathway you will understand and be able to apply the rules governing the addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of fractions and mixed numbers.

Concepts: 8

#### VSEPR Rules - Chemistry - grades 10-12

VSEPR’s are a great way to travel especially if you like mopeds and live in a city with narrow streets. Alright…you got me, that’s not the VSEPR we will be talk about in this pathway. What VSEPR actually means is valence shell electron pair repulsion, and it dictates the shape of molecules. This is primarily due to the Electron Repulsion force caused by the electrons in the outer shell of the atoms making up a molecule. Upon completion of this pathway you will learn about the Basic Geometry of different molecules and understand the difference between Linear Molecules and Bent Molecules among others.

Concepts: 10

#### Challenging Circles - Geometry - grades 8-12

You may be familiar with how to calculate the area of a circle, but have you ever wondered how to calculate the Sector Area of a Circle? By using the Central Angle of a circle you can easily determine the area of any portion of a circle. Upon completion of this pathway you learn how Finding the Area of a Sector using the Central Angle can be quite simple and useful.

Concepts: 7

#### Water Properties - Basic Science - grades 6-8

Did you know that water makes up about seventy percent of your body mass? Not only that, it is the most abundant substance on the planet. Unsurprisingly, in Life Science we want to study the different properties of water as well as how it behaves. Upon completion of this pathway you will understand the different properties of this most wonderful substance including, but not limited to, the Molecular Structure of Water and its Cohesion and Adhesion properties.

Concepts: 5

#### Triangles - Geometry - grades 4-7

Triangles play a big role in helping us make connections between pure mathematics and the natural world. Because nature has so many varieties, it should not be surprising that we tend to use different types of triangles to help model the world around us. In the process of making these connections we need to start Classifying Triangles because not all triangles can be used to model a single situation. For example, we might use Isosceles Triangles and Equilateral Triangles to model symmetrical objects but we would not use Scalene Triangles. Upon completion of this pathway you will understand what the different types of triangles are as well as how to use them to determine some of the properties of objects around us.

Concepts: 9

#### Practical Use of Trig Ratios - Trigonometry - grades 10-12

Did you know that trigonometric ratios can be used to determine the distance an airplane travels as it is taking off, or the distance a skier travels as they ski down a mountain? These are just two of a vast number of real world applications in which trigonometric functions play a role. This pathway aims to put Trigonometric Functions in Context by applying functions such as sine and tangent to real world problems. Upon completion of this pathway you will be able to use the six different trigonometric functions to model real world situations.

Concepts: 7

#### Distance - Algebra I - grades 7-10

Have you ever measured your height, or perhaps the dimensions of a room? What you were doing is measuring distance. But what happens when you want to find the distance between two cities or the distance between a satellite floating through space and a heavenly body? It would not practical to take out a “measuring tape” and measure that distance. For situations like this where it is impractical to actually measure the Basic Distance Between Two Points the Distance Formula becomes very useful. Upon completion of this pathway you will gain an understanding of what the distance formula is and how to apply the Distance Formula in the Real World.

Concepts: 5

#### Solving Systems - Algebra II - grades 8-12

Have you ever heard the phrases, “The possibilities are endless!” and “That’s impossible!”? In mathematics we can actually give those statements an observable meaning. By writing real world problems in terms of algebraic equations we can determine if a solution to a problem exists or not, using such tools as the Multiplication and Addition Method or Solving Linear Systems by Graphing. Upon completion of this pathway you will not only know how to solve a system of linear equations, but will also gain a deeper understanding of what it means for a problem to have one solution, multiple solutions, or no solution.

Concepts: 7