Use mathematical representations to support a claim regarding relationships among the frequency, wavelength,
and speed of waves traveling in various media.
[Clarification Statement: Examples of data could include electromagnetic radiation traveling in a vacuum and glass, sound waves traveling through air and water, and seismic waves traveling through the Earth.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to algebraic relationships and describing those relationships qualitatively.]
Evaluate questions about the advantages of using a digital transmission and storage of information.
[Clarification Statement: Examples of advantages could include that digital information is stable because it can be stored reliably in computer memory, transferred easily, and copied and shared rapidly. Disadvantages could include issues of easy deletion, security, and theft.]
Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning behind the idea that electromagnetic radiation can be described
either by a wave model or a particle model, and that for some situations one model is more useful than the other.
[Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on how the experimental evidence supports the claim and how a theory is generally modified in light of new evidence. Examples of a phenomenon could include resonance, interference, diffraction, and photoelectric effect.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include using quantum theory.]
Evaluate the validity and reliability of claims in published materials of the effects that different frequencies of
electromagnetic radiation have when absorbed by matter.
[Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the idea that photons associated with different frequencies of light have different energies, and the damage to living tissue from electromagnetic radiation depends on the energy of the radiation. Examples of published materials could include trade books, magazines, web resources, videos, and other passages that may reflect bias.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to qualitative descriptions.]
Communicate technical information about how some technological devices use the principles of wave behavior
and wave interactions with matter to transmit and capture information and energy.*
[Clarification Statement: Examples could include solar cells capturing light and converting it to electricity; medical imaging; and communications technology.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessments are limited to qualitative information. Assessments do not include band theory.]