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Education Level_Indonesia

Education Level_Indonesia

Description:
EDUCATION LEVEL –INDONESIA Elementary School (SD) Elementary School (known as Sekolah Dasar or SD) is the most elementary level of formal education in Indonesia. Elementary School is to be completed within 6 years started from grade 1st to grade 6th. Elementary School graduates continue their education at a higher level of schooling called Junior High School (and its equivalent forms). Most elementary school students aged between 7 – 12 years old. In Indonesia, each citizen around the age 7-15 is obliged to gain elementary level of education for 6 years and junior high school level of education for 3 years or in other words, education for all people between the ages 7-15 is a compulsory. Elementary School level of education is a program run by both the government and private institutions. Since the implementation of the Regional Autonomy in 2001, the management of Public Elementary School (SDN) in Indonesia that used to be under the Ministry of National Education has been placed, then, under the management and responsibilities of the Regency/ City Local Government. It means National Education Ministry’s role is only as a regulator in the field of the standardization of national education. Structurally, a public elementary school is a technical unit of Regency/ City Education Department. In the Law on National Education System (Law No. 20, of 2001) Chapter 17, Elementary Education is defined as follow: 1. Elementary Education is a level of education that set a foundation for the Junior High level of Education. 2. Elementary Education is provided in the form of elementary school (SD) and Madrasah Ibtidaiyah/MI (an Islamic form of elementary school), and other equivalent forms of schooling. Junior High Education is provided in the form of Junior High School (SMP) and Madrasah Tsanawiyah/MTs (an Islamic form of junior High school), and other equivalent forms of education. Junior High School (SMP) Junior High School (known as Sekolah Menengah Pertama or SMP) is a basic level of formal education in Indonesia after completing elementary school (or its equivalent). Junior High School is to be completed within 3 years, started from grade 7th or grade 9th. At the moment, the government has stated a compulsory program for all children to complete basic education for 9 years (Elementary School and Junior High School) and it is called “Wajar 9 years” (9 years compulsory education). Junior High School graduates can continue their formal education at Senior High Schools or Vocational High Schools and their equivalent forms of schooling. Most Junior High School students aged between 13 – 15 years. In Indonesia, each citizen around the age 7-15 is obliged to gain elementary level of education for 6 years and junior high school level of education for 3 years. Junior High School level of education is a program run by both the government and private institutions. Since the implementation of the Regional Autonomy in 2001, the management of Public Junior High School (SMPN) in Indonesia that used to be under the Ministry of National Education has been placed, then, under the management and responsibilities of the Regency/ City Local Government. It means, National Education Ministry’s role is only as a regulator in the field of the standardization of national education. Structurally, a public junior high school is a technical unit of Regency/ City Education Department. To study in the SMP/Mts level, all students can choose a form of schooling in accordance to his interest or opportunity. For example they can enter: 1. A Public Junior High School or Private Junior High School 2. SD-SMP Satu Atap (Multigrade Elementary School and One-Building (Elementary and) Junior High Schools. 3. SMP Terbuka (Open Junior High Schools/ schools which are meant to provide children of underprivileged families and those living in areas with limited access to middle school with skill-based education so that they are ready to enter employment or become entrepreneurs after graduating). 4. Public MTs or Private Mts or its equivalent level. 5. Pondok Pesantren Salfiyah, which runs the Compulsory Educational Program. Senior High School (SMA) Senior High School (known as Sekolah Menengah Atas/ SMA) is the continuation of the 9-years of basic level of education. In the Law No. 20, of 2003, regarding National Education System, Chapter 18, Secondary level of education is defined as: 1. Secondary level of education is the continuation of the compulsory basic level of education. 2. Secondary level of education consists of formal Senior high school and Vocational high school. 3. Secondary level of education has several forms of schoolings, such as Senior High School (SMA), Madrasah Aliyah (MA), Vocational High School (SMK), Vocational Madrasah Aliyah (MAK), and other equivalent forms. 4. The implementation of the provisions regarding Secondary Level of Education, set forth in verse (1), verse (2), and verse (3) shall be furthered stipulated by the government regulations. Higher Education Higher Education is the continuation of the secondary level of education. In the Law No. 20, of 2003 regarding National Education System, Chapter 19 and Chapter 20, a higher education is defined as follow: Chapter 19: 1. Higher Education is a level of education after the secondary level of education, which consists of Diploma, bachelor (sarjana), masters and specialized postgraduate programmes and doctorate programmes imparted by a higher education institution. 2. Higher Education shall be provided in flexible system. Chapter 20: 1. Higher Education Institutions, which meets the requirements prescribed, and possess the competence to provide a particular academic programme can confer academic, professional or technical and vocational degrees in accordance with the education programmes that are provided. 2. An individual, organization or education provider that is not a higher education institution is prohibited from conferring academic, professional or vocational and technical degrees. The Costs required in accordance with levels of school Level of schools Monthly tuition Enrolment Fee Monthly Curricular Extra fees Public Private Public Private Public Private SD Free of charge Charged Charged Charged Charged Charged SMP Free of charge Charged Charged Charged Charged Charged SMA Charged Charged Charged Charged Charged Charged PT Charged Charged Charged Charged Charged Charged Education attained by citizens of the age of above 15 years (%) 2008 2009 2010 2011 not attend a school 8,24 7,50 7,28 6,41 not finish elementary schools 14,98 14,86 12,74 14,69 Elementary School/ same level 29,08 29,31 29,72 28,72 Junior High School/ same level 20,23 19,85 20,57 20,74 Senior High School/ same level 27,46 28,49 29,69 29,44 Illiterate (%) 2008 2009 2010 2011 Illiterate 10 years + 6,95 6,59 6,34 6,44 Illiterate 15 years + 7,81 7,42 7,09 7,19 Illiterate 15-44 years 1,95 1,80 1,71 2,30 Illiterate 45 years + 19,59 18,68 18,25 17,89

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