Antibody drug conjugate (ADC) is a monoclonal antibody that binds to bioactive drugs through chemical conjugates with unstable bonds. By combining the unique targeting of mAb and the cancer-killing ability of cytotoxic drugs, ADC can sensitively distinguish healthy tissues from diseased tissues. This technically challenging therapy combines innovations in biotechnology and chemistry to form a new class of highly effective biopharmaceutical drugs. The efficacy of antibody drug conjugates is achieved by covalently linking monoclonal antibodies that recognize specific tumor-associated antigens with cytotoxic agents through stable junctions. The reagent induces cell death only after it is internalized by mAb and released into specific cancer cells. Compared with standard chemotherapy and cancer biological agents, antibody drug couplings limit systemic exposure and improve drug tolerance-passing the lethal payload directly to the target tumor cells without affecting healthy tissue.