APA Interviews and Personal Communications:
*Note: APA provides formatting for various sources of information, but does not provide specific formatting for every type of source. If you have a source that APA does not cover individually, choose a format for a source that you think is the most similar.
Interviews that you conduct yourself or personal communications do no appear on the APA Reference List. Instead, you should create an in-text citation or a parenthetical reference that appears in the main text of your paper. Include the communicator’s name, the fact that it’s a personal communication, and the date within parentheses.
(R. Lollard, personal communication, November 13, 2011).
If you mention the communicator’s name in the sentence, simply include the remaining information in the parenthetical citation.
Roy Lollard remembers a “different Duck Lake” (personal communication, November 13, 2011).
If the interview appeared on television, then cite it as you would a television broadcast:
Producer’s last name, initials. (Producer). (Broadcast date). Title of broadcast program in italics and sentence case [Television broadcast]. City of broadcast, State abbreviation: Station Name.
Pauline, M. R. (Producer). (2011, November 22). The nightly news minute [Television broadcast]. Chicago, IL: Big Broadcasting Service.
If the interview appears in print, cite it as the appropriate print source.
However, interviews that cannot be found on record or in print should not receive an entry on the Reference List.