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4 Tutorials that teach Assessment Types
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Assessment Types

Assessment Types

Description:

This lesson will examine the various assessment tools utilized to measure personality.

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Tutorial

What's Covered

This lesson is going to cover different kinds of assessments by looking at:

  1. Questionnaire
  2. Projective Tests

1. Questionnaires

Assessments are used to measure various aspects and traits of a person’s personality. Each approach uses different types of assessments. One type is a questionnaire. These are important because it underlies the importance of objective tests.

An objective assessment is when the same questions and measures are used for each person so they're not varying and can be studied them more in depth. It would also mean that a questionnaire or an objective form of assessment should give the same score when different people are scoring it.

Terms to Know

  • Objective Test
  • Test with standardized, consistent scoring and administration.
  • Personality Questionnaire
  • Type of objective test; a written test with questions that ask about aspects of a person’s thinking, feeling, or behavior. 

A personality questionnaire is a written form of test, where a person is given a list of questions that reveal different aspects of a person's personality depending on the answers they give. They often ask in personality questionnaires about likely behaviors, a person's feelings, and their responses in different kinds of scenarios.

An advantage of the questionnaire is they can be given to a large number of people. A large amount of data can be collected to support whatever theories are being tested.

The weaknesses are that they can be inflexible. They can't be changed depending on what type of person you're studying. They can also be biased toward particular groups. The way that they are written can affect what kinds of scores youLoading... get from different kinds of people. Questionnaires can also vary widely in terms of reliability and validity. means that the results are consistent.

Example{If someone were to take the same questionnaire twice in a short period of time, they should be getting basically the same score. Otherwise the test isn't reliable.

Term to Know

  • Reliability
  • Consistency of responses to assessment across time.

means that the test measures what it's supposed to measure, and it isn't being affected by any kind of outside variables. Its results should be similar to other tests that are reliable about the same kinds of subjects.

ExampleIf you developed a questionnaire and were to test the validity of it, you would look at other things that are measuring the similar thing and have been shown to be effective over time. If the results are close to the same you have a valid questionnaire.  

Terms to Know

  • Validity
  • Test measures what the researcher is attempting to measure.

2. Projective Tests

are tests that are a little bit different. They tend to use ambiguous words, or images especially, to attempt to uncover unconscious thoughts or desires. Projective tests are focused on psychodynamic theories of the unconscious.

ExampleThe Rorschach inkblot tests where people's responses to this picture of an inkblot are recorded and interpreted by an observer.


Term to Know

  • Projective Test
  • Tests that present ambiguous stimuli; responses are analyzed for meaning.

The strengths are that projective tests are very difficult to fake, because there aren't right or wrong answers. Oftentimes the person doesn't realize what they're being tested on, because they're looking at their unconscious, rather than their conscious mind. They can also provide in-depth information about the subject's mental processes that are otherwise very difficult to understand.

Weaknesses for projective tests is that they tend to be very low in validity, since it's hard to tell at times what they are measuring. They're also subject to some interpretation by the psychologist who's giving it, because the psychologist is recording the responses.

There are specific procedures when scoring, so it's not completely up to the psychologist to determine the interpretation will be.

Summary

Different approaches of psychology use different kinds of assessments to measure aspects of personality. The questionnaire is a form of written test that can reveal personality based on the answers a test taker gives. These can be given to a large number of people, and are helpful for collecting large amounts of data. However, they can be inflexible and can vary is reliability and validity. Projective tests are used for testing the unconscious. These tests can be difficult to fake and give insight into mental process that are otherwise hard to understand. These tests have low validity.

Source: This work is adapted from Sophia Author Erick Taggart

TERMS TO KNOW
  • Reliability

    Consistency of responses to assessment across time.

  • Validity

    Test measures what the researcher is attempting to measure.

  • Objective Test

    Test with standardized, consistent scoring and administration.

  • Projective Test

    Tests that present ambiguous stimuli; responses are analyzed for meaning.

  • Personality Questionnaire

    Type of objective test; a written test with questions that ask about aspects of a person’s thinking, feeling, or behavior.