Cellular respiration is the process in which ATP is produced.
ATP stands for adenosine triphosphate, which is basically an energy storage molecule used by cells.
In this process, organic molecules, which are molecules that contain carbon are broken down to produce ATP energy. ATP is the main source of energy used by cells. Substances or organic molecules, such as glucose, lipids, and proteins can be broken down to make ATP.
The most important substance we're going to focus on is glucose. Glucose is used as an energy source faster than lipids and proteins. Therefore, it has the potential to produce ATP rapidly. Extra steps have to happen in order for lipids and proteins to produce ATP.
There are three stages to cellular respiration.
To initiate this process, a glucose molecule will enter the first stage of cellular respiration, which is glycolysis. This occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell.
It's an anaerobic process, meaning that it does not require oxygen to occur. From glycolysis, we'll have some products produced that will be transferred into our other stages of cellular respiration.
The next stage of cellular respiration is the Krebs cycle, which occurs in the mitochondria of the cell.
Mitochondria are cellular organelles found within our cells. The Krebs cycle occurs within the inner membrane of the mitochondria. The Krebs cycle is an aerobic process, which means it needs oxygen to occur. Some of the products from the Krebs cycle will then be transferred into our next stage, which is the electron transport chain.
The electronic transport chain is the third stage of cellular respiration. This occurs across the inner membrane of the mitochondria.
The electron transport chain is an aerobic process which requires oxygen. At the end of the cellular respiration process, you end up with a net gain of 36 ATP molecules for every one glucose molecule that entered the process. Each of these different stages produces some ATP, but the vast majority of our ATP is produced in the electron transport chain.
ATP is actually a nucleotide and thus contains a type of sugar. There is a ribose sugar attached to both the adenine base and the three phosphates. The energy is stored in the bond between the extra phosphates. ATP can give away or take on extra phosphates; when it has that extra phosphate on it, this is where the stored energy is located.
Source: THIS WORK IS ADAPTED FROM SOPHIA AUTHOR AMANDA SODERLIND