Recall that a verb is the part of speech that shows an action or describes a state of being. Depending on whether you’re describing an action that is taking place in the present, future, or past, that verb is going to change to match the tense.
EXAMPLE"She walks" is happening now. That means it’s a present tense verb, indicating that something is happening in the present.
Do you notice anything special about present tense? "She walks" could describe what this person is doing in the immediate present or something that she is always going to be doing. Present tense verbs work this way.
If you’re talking about the future, then you’d say "she will walk" because future tense verbs indicate that an action will happen sometime in the future.
If you’re describing the past, you’d say "she walked" since past tense verbs indicate that something happened already, in the past, and is not happening anymore.
There is more than one way to describe what happened in the past, and thus, there are actually several past tenses. The one you’ll see and use most commonly is the simple past tense ("she walked").
You can usually spot simple past tense verbs because they end with "d" or "ed," like "walked" and "held." These simple verb tenses are the ones you want to use whenever possible.
Tense is also an important element of meaning in a sentence, and you have to be careful with it.
EXAMPLE"He cooks" is present tense and "he cooked" is simple past tense. Notice that not only has the tense changed, but the implication of the sentence may have changed as well. Instead of knowing that this man is a person who often cooks, the past tense sentence just tells you that he cooked at one point in the past.
2a. Past Participle
Past tense, in fact, can change a lot about the meaning of a sentence, especially when you use a past participle. A past participle is a verb form composed of the past tense of the verb plus "have," "has," or "had."
EXAMPLEHere, you have a sentence in simple past tense: I danced at home. If you change the verb to a past participle, it becomes: I have danced at home. The past tense verb "danced" is now accompanied by the word "have." That pair is your past participle, a special form of the verb.
The past participle can be used in three different ways.
2b. Past Perfect
The past perfect tense is a type of past tense describing something that took place in the more distant past instead of the recent past by pairing "had" with a verb.
EXAMPLEI danced at home before it was time for dinner can become I had danced at home before it was time for dinner.
In the second sentence, the dancing and the dinner are clearly separated. In the first sentence, written in the simple past tense, the time period isn’t so distinct.
This is why past perfect can be useful— it prevents confusion. Just look at how easy it is to get confused about when things happened.
EXAMPLEI printed the paper and then the printer broke can become I had printed the paper and then the printer broke.
Using the past perfect tells you that the printing took place further back in time, before the time when the printer broke.
2c. Irregular Verbs
There are some verbs that don’t follow the rules for past tense. These are called irregular verbs because instead of using "ed" to show the past tense, they transform entirely.
EXAMPLEIf you want to talk about your trip to the lake, you’d write, "I swam in the lake last year" since "swimmed" doesn’t sound right. Or if you were talking about a time you tripped down the stairs, you wouldn’t say, "I falled." Instead, you’d say, "I fell down the stairs."
English is full of these verbs, so it’s important to recognize them, and if you’re ever unsure, to check a dictionary.
Here are a few common ones:
In any sentence, it’s important that all the verbs use the same tense to clearly mark the time frame.
EXAMPLEI rode my bike and stopped for a drink at the fountain.
Notice that in the sentence above, "rode" and "stopped" are both past tense.
EXAMPLEI ride my bike and stopped for a drink at the fountain.
In this sentence, "ride" is in the present tense, but "stopped" is in the past tense. This doesn’t make any sense.
This is a pretty common mistake to make in the tense of a sentence— beginning with a verb in one tense, but shifting into another tense for the next verb. The way a reader understands this sentence is altered when the tenses shift, so you want to be careful to avoid this error.
To write sentences that don’t confuse your readers, ask yourself when an action took place: