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39,000 Union (northern) troops, led by General McDowell marched out of Washington to Richmond, Virginia to capture the railroad line at Manassas Junction.
21,000 Confederate/Rebel (southern) troops led by General P.G.T. Beauregard opposed the Union troops
*another 11,000 Confederate/Rebel troops under General Johnson came to support Beauregard. Johnston soon came to command all of the Confederate forces at Manassas
On July 21, 1861, Union troops crossed Bull Run Creek and attacked the Confederate/Rebel troops.
Both forces are confident and enthusiastic to fight, but they are also undisciplined and poorly trained and equiped.
Leaders had little experience leading large groups of men
The Union had success early pushing the Confederates back, but the Confederates rallied (came back, started to win).
Near a house, under the leadership of General Jackson, the Confederates held "like a stone wall". This led the general being known as Stonewall Jackson.
After the Confederates received reinforcements from Johnston, they were able to push the Union back to Bull Run Creek.
The Union troops began to retreat (runaway from the battle). This led to the disorganization of the Union troops, who were retreating back to Washington.
The Confederates were also disorganized. They were tired and surprised that they had defeated the Union during the battle.
This was the first major victory for the Confederates