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Blood Sugar Disorders

Blood Sugar Disorders

Description:

This lesson will identify the cause and effects of disorders associated with blood sugar.

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Tutorial

What's Covered

Welcome to this lesson today on blood sugar disorders. Today you will be learning about various disorders that are affected by blood sugar levels. Specifically, you will learn about:

  1. Type 1 Diabetes
  2. Type 2 Diabetes
  3. Prediabetes
  4. Hypoglycemia

1. Type 1 Diabetes

Normally, homeostatic mechanisms within the body help to regulate our blood glucose levels. However, sometimes those levels cannot be normally regulated due to certain factors, which can lead to disorders. Type I diabetes is an autoimmune response in which pancreatic cells don't produce insulin.

This disorder can be caused by genetics in combination with a viral infection, but usually this disorder occurs early in life. A person who has this disorder needs to take insulin injections to regulate their glucose levels. Insulin is a hormone that helps to lower blood sugar levels. If the pancreas isn't producing insulin, the body doesn't have a way to lower blood sugar levels. If blood sugar levels climb too high, they can damage capillaries and have an effect on blood flow throughout the body.

Term to Know

    • Type I Diabetes
    • Also called juvenile onset diabetes or insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), this is an autoimmune disease that causes the destruction of beta cells. Type I diabetes typically strikes at a young age and since the beta cells are destroyed a person cannot produce insulin anymore. They must, therefore, take insulin injections.

2. Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is another type of blood sugar disorder where target cells don't respond to insulin, for reasons not well understood. When blood sugar levels get too high and they can damage capillaries and affect blood flow. Type 2 diabetes can affect blood flow to the skin, eyes, the lower limbs, and actually correlates with obesity, diet and lifestyle. This type of diabetes, type 2 generally shows up later in life and is generally a result of a person's lifestyle and diet.

Term to Know

    • Type II Diabetes
    • Also called adult onset diabetes or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), type II diabetes is more of a lifestyle disease that affects people when they are older. People with type II diabetics produce and secrete insulin but, for reasons which are poorly understood, it doesn’t work well.

3. Prediabetes

Prediabetes is a condition in which there is a slightly high blood sugar level. Think of it more as a warning sign that a person is on track to developing type 2 diabetes. Prediabetes can actually be reversed with diet and exercise and again, it's a warning sign that if the person continues the way that they are, type 2 diabetes will likely develop.

Term to Know

    • Prediabetes
    • The signs and symptoms leading up to diabetes.

4. Hypoglycemia

Hypoglycemia is characterized by low blood sugar. A person can develop low blood sugar if they miscalculate an insulin injection and inject too much. Sometimes people develop tumors that secrete insulin which causes blood sugar levels to decline. If there is too much insulin in the system too much sugar is being removed from the blood, and then there's not enough fuel left over for proper brain functioning. To fix this, you would need to raise the blood sugar level of the person to normal levels.

Term to Know

    • Hypoglycemia
    • The clinical term for lower than normal blood glucose levels.

Summary

This lesson has been an overview on various disorders associated with blood sugar levels. Specifically, you learned about type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, prediabetes, and hypoglycemia.

Keep up the learning and have a great day!

Source: THIS WORK IS ADAPTED FROM SOPHIA AUTHOR AMANDA SODERLIND

TERMS TO KNOW
  • Type I Diabetes

    Also called juvenile onset diabetes or insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), this is an autoimmune disease that causes the destruction of beta cells. Type I diabetes typically strikes at a young age and since the beta cells are destroyed a person cannot produce insulin anymore. They must, therefore, take insulin injections.

  • Type II Diabetes

    Also called adult onset diabetes or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), type II diabetes is more of a lifestyle disease that affects people when they are older. People with type II diabetics produce and secrete insulin but, for reasons which are poorly understood, it doesn’t work well.

  • Prediabetes

    The signs and symptoms leading up to diabetes.

  • Hypoglycemia

    The clinical term for lower than normal blood glucose levels.