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Bone Structure and Growth

Bone Structure and Growth


This lesson will give an overview of the structure of bone as well as how bones grow.

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Terms to Know

​A connective tissue of cells and fibers covered by a membrane called the periosteum.

Bone marrow

A substance that is found within the hollow areas of bone, red marrow is found within the spongy bones and yellow marrow is found in the shaft (diaphysis) of long bones.

Cartilage model

The model that is used to describe how bone is manufactured from embryonic cartilage.

Compact bone

A type of bone tissue that consists of many osteons and a dense tissue matrix; cells of the osteons surround central canals called Haversian canals; found in the shafts of long bones and periphery of spongy bone.


Enlarged ends of long bones that contains spongy bone and yellow bone marrow, except the head of the humerus and femur (contains red marrow).


A cell that builds bone tissue by secreting collagen fibers that bind to calcium; this combination forms the tough tissue matrix of bone.


A cell that breaks down bone tissue by secreting hydrochloric acid into the tissue spaces; dissolves the bond between calcium and collagen.


The functional unit of bone, is circular in nature and contains a hollow central canal (Haversian canal) that is surrounded by bone cells (osteocytes).


A two layered connective tissue that is found on the outside of all bones; it supports, nourishes and protects bones of the body.

Spongy bone

Thin beams of compact bone that are found in the ends of long bones and the middle of spongy bone; is porous and lighter in weight.