Bone Structure and Growth

Bone Structure and Growth


This lesson will give an overview of the structure of bone as well as how bones grow.

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  • Osteoblast

    A cell that builds bone tissue by secreting collagen fibers that bind to calcium; this combination forms the tough tissue matrix of bone.

  • Osteoclast

    A cell that breaks down bone tissue by secreting hydrochloric acid into the tissue spaces; dissolves the bond between calcium and collagen.

  • Compact bone

    A type of bone tissue that consists of many osteons and a dense tissue matrix; cells of the osteons surround central canals called Haversian canals; found in the shafts of long bones and periphery of spongy bone.

  • Spongy bone

    Thin beams of compact bone that are found in the ends of long bones and the middle of spongy bone; is porous and lighter in weight.

  • Bone

    ​A connective tissue of cells and fibers covered by a membrane called the periosteum.

  • Periosteum

    A two layered connective tissue that is found on the outside of all bones; it supports, nourishes and protects bones of the body.

  • Osteon

    The functional unit of bone, is circular in nature and contains a hollow central canal (Haversian canal) that is surrounded by bone cells (osteocytes).

  • Epiphysis

    Enlarged ends of long bones that contains spongy bone and yellow bone marrow, except the head of the humerus and femur (contains red marrow).

  • Cartilage model

    The model that is used to describe how bone is manufactured from embryonic cartilage.

  • Bone marrow

    A substance that is found within the hollow areas of bone, red marrow is found within the spongy bones and yellow marrow is found in the shaft (diaphysis) of long bones.