One of the major differences that exist between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells is the presence of membrane bound organelles in eukaryotic. These organelles allow for compartmentalization or specialization to take place in these organelles within the cell. This allows for the cells to increase in surface area more efficiently than prokaryotes which is one of the reasons they are larger in size by comparison.
Ribosomes are found in the cytoplasm or attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum. They are made in the nucleus and function is to synthesis of proteins.
Peroxisomes are responsible for the break down of amino acids, fatty acids and hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen.
Cilia and flagella are often attached to eukaryotic cells and aid in movement. Flagella are longer than cilia and their are only a few of them. They move in a snake-like or zigzagging pattern. Sperm are the only cells that contain a flagella in the human body. Cilia are shorter and more numerous than flagella. The move back-and-forth and in the human body they are often responsible for creating currents as seen in the respiratory and reproductive tracts. They can also be the source of movement for entire cells or organisms as is the case with paramecium.
Flagella and cilia are both structurally arranged in a 9+2 microtubule pattern. There is a pair of microtubules located in the center with 9 pairs (called doublets) of microtubules circling the center.