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# Ch 12.4 Universal Forces

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Author: deirdre carney
##### Description:
• Identify the forms of electromagnetic force that can both attract and repel
• Identify and describe the universal forces acting within the nucleus
• Define Newton's law of universal gravitation and describe the factors affecting gravitational force
• Describe centripetal force and the type of motion it produces

P.12.B.2 Students know magnetic forces and electric forces can be thought of as different aspects of electromagnetic force. I/S

P.12.B.4 Students know the strength of the gravitational force between two objects increases with mass and decreases rapidly with distance. I/S

Next Generation Science Standards

HS-PS2-d Use mathematical expressions to represent the relationship between the variables in both Newton's Law of Gravitation and Coulomb's Law, and use these expressions to predict the gravitational and electrostatic forces between objects

HS- PS3-e Develop and use models of two objects interacting through a field to explain the changes in energy and the forces between the objects due to the interaction.

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Tutorial

Outline the reading in your Science Notebook & include major points and diagrams/tables.
You should focus on the following essential questions:
- What force can attract and repel
- What force holds the nucleus together
- What is Newton's Law of universal gravitation

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Source: Prentice Hall Physical Science - Concepts in Action

## Video Clip: Strong Interaction: The Four Fundamental Forces of Physics #1a

Part one of a four part series on the fundamental forces (or interactions) of physics begins with the strong force or strong interaction - which on the small scale holds quarks together to form protons, neutrons and other hadron particles.

## Video Clip: Weak Interaction: The Four Fundamental Forces of Physics #2

Part two in the series on the four fundamental forces of physics by describing the weak interaction, which operates at an infinitesimally small scale to cause particle decay.

## Video clip: Gravitation: The Four Fundamental Forces of Physics #3

The Scishow continues their series on the four fundamental forces of physics with a description of gravitation -
the interaction by which physical bodies attract with a force proportional to that of their masses, and which is responsible for keeping planets in orbit, among other things.

## Video Clip: Electromagnetism - Magnetic Force: The Four Fundamental Forces of Physics #4b

In this final segment on the four fundamental forces of physics, The Scishow tackles the magnetic force, the second of the two ways in which electromagnetism is apparent in the universe.