Changes to Chromosome Structure
Next Generation: HS.LS3.2 HS.LS3.2

Changes to Chromosome Structure

Author: Aaron Mullally

This lesson will identify how the structure of a chromosome can change and the implications that come from changes in chromosomes.

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Video Images: Gene Deletion image, Public domain:
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5f/Deletion.gif; Cri du Chat image, Creative Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Criduchat.jpg; Translocation image, Public Domain: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Translocation.gif; Gene Duplication image, Public Domain: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gene-duplication-notext.png; Human Karyotype image, Public Domain: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Human_karyotype.svg; Spectral Karyotype image, Public Domain: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sky_spectral_karyotype.gif

Source: Aaron M

Terms to Know
  • Cri-du-chat

    A genetic disorder caused by the deletion of a section of the 5th chromosome; cri-du-chat is French for “cry of the cat”. Cri-du-chat causes physical and cognitive abnormalities.

  • Deletion

    When part of a chromosome is deleted; sometimes it may not have any effect while other times it does.

  • Duplication

    Sequences of nucleotides are repeated multiple times, they haven’t been linked to disorders, but have been linked to cancers.

  • Karyotype

    Looking at the number of chromosomes and their characteristics under a microscope, this is a critical tool in assessing genetic disorders in a developing embryo.

  • Translocation

    A chromosome abnormality that occurs when nonhomologous parts rearrange and fuse together.