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Chapter 29: Antidiarrheals Test Bank

Chapter 29: Antidiarrheals Test Bank

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Chapter 29: Antidiarrheals
Test Bank
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1.   A woman who is 4 months pregnant comes to the clinic with acute diarrhea and nausea. Her husband is experiencing similar symptoms. The primary care nurse practitioner (NP) notes a temperature of 38.5° C, a heart rate of 92 beats per minute, and a blood pressure of 100/60 mm Hg. The NP should:
a.

prescribe attapulgite to treat her diarrhea.

b.

obtain a stool culture and start antibiotic therapy.

c.

instruct her to replace lost fluids by drinking Pedialyte.

d.

refer her to an emergency department for intravenous (IV) fluids.

2.   A patient has been taking antibiotics to treat recurrent pneumonia. The patient is in the clinic after having diarrhea for 5 days with six to seven liquid stools each day. The primary care NP should:
a.

obtain a stool specimen and order vancomycin.

b.

order testing for Clostridium difficileand consider metronidazole therapy.

c.

prescribe diphenoxylate (Lomotil) to provide symptomatic relief.

d.

reassure the patient that diarrhea is a common side effect of antibiotic therapy.

3.   A patient who has had four to five liquid stools per day for 4 days is seen by the primary care NP. The patient asks about medications to stop the diarrhea. The NP tells the patient that antidiarrheal medications are:
a.

not curative and may prolong the illness.

b.

useful in cases of acute infection with elevated temperature.

c.

most beneficial when symptoms persist longer than 2 weeks.

d.

useful when other symptoms, such as hematochezia, develop.

4.   A patient who has experienced five to seven liquid stools for 3 days is seen in the clinic by the primary care NP. The patient reports having had fever, mucoid stools, and nausea without vomiting. The patient has been drinking Gatorade to stay hydrated. The NP obtains a stool specimen for culture and should prescribe:
a.

diphenoxylate (Lomotil).

b.

attapulgite (Kaopectate).

c.

bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol).

d.

loperamide hydrochloride (Imodium).

5.   A 2-year-old child has chronic “toddler’s” diarrhea, which has an unknown but benign etiology. The child’s parent asks the primary care NP if a medication can be used to treat the child’s symptoms. The NP should recommend giving:
a.

diphenoxylate (Lomotil).

b.

attapulgite (Kaopectate).

c.

an electrolyte solution (Pedialyte).

d.

bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol).

6.   A patient comes to the clinic with a 4-day history of 10 to 12 liquid stools each day. The patient reports seeing blood and mucus in the stools. The patient has had nausea but no vomiting. The primary care NP notes a temperature of 37.9° C, a heart rate of 96 beats per minute, and a blood pressure of 90/60 mm Hg. A physical examination reveals dry oral mucous membranes and capillary refill of 4 seconds. The NP’s priority should be to:
a.

obtain stool cultures.

b.

begin rehydration therapy.

c.

consider prescribing metronidazole.

d.

administer opioid antidiarrheal medications.

7.   A 12-year-old patient has acute diarrhea and an upper respiratory infection. Other family members have had similar symptoms, which have resolved. The primary care NP should recommend:
a.

diphenoxylate (Lomotil).

b.

attapulgite (Kaopectate).

c.

an electrolyte solution (Pedialyte).

d.

bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol).


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