Describe the ways in which evolution can occur.
Evolution can occur through artificial selection, natural selection, or random processes. Artificial selection occurs when humans determine which individuals will mate and pass on their genes to the next generation to achieve a predetermined suite of traits. Natural selection does not favor a predetermined suite of traits, but simply favors those individuals that are best able to survive and reproduce. Random processes (mutation, genetic drift, bottleneck effects, and founder effects) do not favor a predetermined suite of traits, nor do they favor individuals with the highest fitness.
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How does evolution really work? Actually, not how some of our common evolutionary metaphors would have us believe. For instance, it's species, not individual organisms, that adapt to produce evolution, and genes don't "want" to be passed on -- a gene can't want anything at all! Alex Gendler sets the record straight on the finer points of evolution.