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Chapter 57: Principles for Prescribing Antiinfectives Test Bank

Chapter 57: Principles for Prescribing Antiinfectives Test Bank

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Chapter 57: Principles for Prescribing Antiinfectives
Test Bank
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1.   A patient comes to the clinic with a history of fever of 102° F for several days, poor appetite, and cough. A sputum culture is pending, but Gram stain indicates a bacterial infection. The primary care nurse practitioner (NP) should:
a.

begin empirical antibiotic therapy.

b.

use a broad-spectrum antibiotic for initial treatment.

c.

prescribe an antibiotic when culture and sensitivity results are known.

d.

offer symptomatic treatment only unless the patient’s condition worsens.

2.   The primary care NP sees a patient who has a 1-week history of nasal congestion; red, watery eyes; cough; and a temperature ranging from 99.1° F to 100.5° F. The NP notes thin, white nasal discharge and an erythematous oropharynx without swelling or exudates. The NP should:
a.

begin empiric antibiotic therapy to treat sinusitis.

b.

reassure the patient that this is likely a viral infection.

c.

prescribe antiviral medications and decongestants.

d.

obtain a nasal culture and consider antibiotic therapy.

3.   A patient who has had two recent urinary tract infections is in the clinic with dysuria and fever. The primary care NP reviews the patient’s chart and notes that in both previous cases the causative organism and sensitivity were the same. The NP should:
a.

treat the patient empirically without a culture.

b.

order a microscopic evaluation of the urine and an antibiotic.

c.

order a urine culture and treat empirically pending culture results.

d.

order a urine culture and sensitivity and wait for results before treating.

4.   A new patient comes to see the primary care NP with fever, mild dehydration, and dysuria with flank pain. The patient tells the NP that a previous provider always prescribed trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and wonders why a urine culture is necessary because this antibiotic has worked in the past. The NP should tell this patient that a culture is necessary to help determine:
a.

the correct dose of the antibiotic.

b.

whether antibiotic resistance is occurring.

c.

whether multiple organisms are causing infection.

d.

the length of antibiotic therapy needed to treat the infection.

5.   The primary care NP sees a child in the clinic who has a 5-day history of cough, poor fluid intake, and fever of 103° F. A chest radiograph shows areas of consolidation in the child’s lungs. The child’s cough is nonproductive, and the NP is unable to get a sputum specimen. The NP should:
a.

prescribe a broad-spectrum antibiotic to cover any possible causative organism.

b.

ask colleagues in the clinic about children they have treated and what they have prescribed.

c.

give the child’s parents a specimen cup and ask that they try to bring in a sputum specimen for culture.

d.

refer the child to a pulmonologist or infectious disease specialist to help determine the proper treatment.


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