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CHAPTER 6: THE WORLD OF ISLAM. Section #1 The Rise of Island

CHAPTER 6: THE WORLD OF ISLAM. Section #1 The Rise of Island

Author: Mark Biancuzzo
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Chapter 6: Section #1 The Rise of Islam Vocabulary


Sheikh: A man who was chosen from one of the leading families by a council of elders to rule a tribe.

Allah:  Was recognized as the one supreme god.

Quran:  The holy book of the religion of Islam.

Islam:  Means "peace through the submission to the will of Allah".  Submission means to give up or in.

Hijrah:  Was the name of the trip taken by Muhammad and his followers from Makkah to Madinah.

Hajj:  A pilgrimage to the city of Makkah.  All muslims are encouraged to take this trip.

Shari'ah:  Muslim law code developed by Muslim scholars.



Source: GLENCOE WORLD HISTORY McGraw Hill/Glencoe 2008

Chapter 6: Section #1 The Rise of Islam Notes



The Arabs were a Semetic-speaking people who lived in the Arabian Peninsula, a desert land that was lacking rivers and lakes (was extremely dry and hot).  They were nomads who had to move from area to area to avoid hostile groups and to find food and water.  

In order to survive, the Arabs formed tribes to support one another.  These tribes were ruled by a sheikh.  Each tribe was independent, but provided support to one another.  Many Arabs lived as farmers or sheepherders on the oases and rain-fed areas of the Arabian Peninsula.  After the camel was domesticated (made to be a working animal), they were able to expand their trade into more areas of the desert.  

Many early Arabs were polytheistic (believed in many gods), but the recognized Allah as their supreme god.  The Arabs trace their beginnings to  Abraham and his son Ishmael.  Arabs believed they built a house of worship called the Kaaba at Makkah.  The cornerstone of the Kaaba is called the Black Stone.

Political disorder (troubled times) in Mesopotamia and Egypt made trade routes very dangerous.  A safer route through Makkah and then across the Indian Ocean by trip became a popular route.  Communities along these routes prospered from the increased trade.  However, tensions began to rise when wealthy trade merchants showed little concern for the welfare of others.



Source: GLENCOE WORLD HISTORY McGraw Hill/Glencoe 2008

Chapter 6: Section #1 The Rise of Islam Notes



Muhammad was born in Makkah to a merchant family and was later orphaned at the age of five.  He grew up to become a caravan manager and married a rich widow named Khadija.  Later in life, he became upset with the way the wealthy treated the poor.  He began to visit the hills and meditate.  During one of these visits he received a revelation from God.  According to Islamic teachings, the angel Gabriel, gave Muhammad a message and asked him to spread what he had heard.  Through this message the Quran was written.

The Quran, which is the holy book of the religion Islam, contains the guidelines and laws which the followers of Allah must live by.  Those who read and follow the Quran are called Muslims.  Islam has only one God, Allah, and Muhammad is God's prophet.

After receiving the message, Muhammad returned home and think about what he was told.  His wife supported him and told him to follow Gabriel's message.  She became the first to convert to Islam.  Muhammad then left for Makkah to try and convince others to convert.  Many were surprised that Muhammad claimed to be a prophet.  The wealthy began to fear him.  They believed that his talks about the corrupt society would upset the established social and political order. 

After 3 years of speaking to people, Muhammad only had 30 followers.  He was discouraged by his lack of followers and the persecution of his people. In 622, Muhammad left for for the city of Madinah.  In Madinah, he began to win support from the people.  He also began to win support from Arabs called bedouin, who lived in the desert.  These people became the first practicing Muslim community. 

Muhammad soon became a religious and political leader as he began to attract for followers.  His military knowledge and skills allowed him to create a reliable military.  In 630, he returned to Makkah with 10,000 men.  The city surrendered and most of the people converted to Islam.  He later declared Kabba, a sacred shrine of Islam.  Two years later, as the religion of Islam spread through the Arabian Peninsula, Muhammad died.


Source: Source: GLENCOE WORLD HISTORY McGraw Hill/Glencoe 2008

Muhammad - History Channel

Source: History Channel

Muhammad the Prophet

Chapter 6: Section #1 The Rise of Islam Notes


Islam is a direct and simple faith, which stresses the need to obey the will of Allah.  To do this, all Muslims must practice the acts of worship known as the Five Pillars of Islam

1.  Belief

2.  Prayer

3.  Charity

4.  Fasting

5.  Pilgrimage


Muslims believe in One God, and Muhammad is his messenger (belief).  The pray 5 times a day (prayer) and give part of their wealth to the poor (charity).  During Ramadan, Muslims refrain from food and drink from dawn to sunset (fasting).  Finally, believers are expected to make a pilgrimage to Makkah at least once in their lifetime (pilgrimage). 


After Muhammad's death, Muslim scholars developed a law code known as the shari'ah.  It provided Muslims a sewt of practical laws to live by.

Source: Source: GLENCOE WORLD HISTORY McGraw Hill/Glencoe 2008

Five Pillars of Islam

Chapter 6: The World of Islam Section #1 Outline Review Worksheet

Complete the questions on the review worksheet with complete sentences and email.