Online College Courses for Credit

+
City Planning

City Planning

Rating:
Rating
(0)
Author: Mary Davidson
Description:

Although city planning has only existed as a planned career for less than a century, it is clear that all cities have historically displayed different levels of conscious and forethought design in their structure and how they function (Roger, 2008). Today, the process of planning involves the improvement of urban centers or rural areas in order to provide healthy and safe living conditions; efficient transportation alternatives and communication; adequate facilities; and aesthetically pleasing surroundings. This can be accomplished through the public, private, or non-profit sectors of the profession. Cities survive for different reasons, and the variety of urban styles can be observed to the complicated tasks that cities perform (Boustan, 2010).

In order to understand history of racial segregation in California in Post World War 2, we have to examine four categories: Federal policies, racism, social context, and poverty (Bajari, and Matthew, 2005). Racial segregation is separation of people by races. It can be in school, working place, public facilities or church. Racial segregation became less common because of the civil right movement. Civil right movement was a movement fight for equal treatment regardless of races. It leaded the birth of The Montgomery Bus Boycott, Sit-Ins, The Freedom Rides, Birmingham, The March on Washington, Mississippi and Freedom Summer, Selma, Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act 1965 (Cozzens, 1998). It gave equal right to all Americans, and racial integration happened; white Americans started to interact with people of color in public.

First of all, the Federal policies were the most important factor to understand racial segregation. In fact, the Federal policies were one of the main causes of racial segregation. As the African Americans migration, and the large number of immigrants, they U.S. government started setting policies to discriminate the immigrants, which cause racial segregation direct and indirectly. In some authors, Self, Lamb, and Saito, opinions, racial segregation was state supported (Saito, 2009). Secondly, the social context explain why people segregation racially by themselves. People naturally segregate by themselves, without forcing them. People are more willing to make friends in the same skin color, same language, and same culture (Bayer, McMillan, and Rueben, 2002); it reduces the barriers and culture conflicts between people and makes them more comfortable. In California, there was Japan town, China town, Korean Town in every big city. When African Americans first arrived the Unites States, they have ” a small, but well-establish prewar African American community”. The next key factor is racism. Bayer, McMillan, and Rueben claimed that “race itself must be a fundamental driving force explaining observed racial segregation patterns” (Roger, 2008). Lamb believed that “housing segregation is explained in large part by discrimination” (Lamb, 2005). Last but not least, poverty had a high correlation with racial segregation. The gap of the income level between the white Americans and immigrants was so large that would cause racial segregation.

Federal Housing Administration (FHA) was the government organization which gave out discriminated mortgage service (Boustan, 2010). FHA was to protect consumers by insure loans provided by banks and make sure that there was enough money in the lending system for everyone. It reduced the down-payment to about 10% according to dissertation writing service, extended the deadline, established standard for home construction, and provide backed load, which lower the risk for lenders and encouraged people to buy houses by lending loans (Jackson, 1985). The FHA policies encouraged the birth of the American suburb. Although FHA improved the condition of housing, only white Americans benefited, and it made African Americans worse. FHA restricted the African Americans on home mortgage (Jackson, 1985). The explicit racial federal guidelines for home mortgage and practices by financial institutions and home builders ensured that the new suburbs would be reserved for whites only. The communities that were rated as “D”, which were regions with African Americans, would not able to get the loan, they did not have money to improve and repair their home. Bouston claimed that racial segregation through law has historical grounds in two flows of people: black immigration from the rural South and white reposition from main cities to the suburban ring (Cozzens, 1998). Further, if there was a white community next to a mixed community, people in the white community was not able to get loan unless they built a wall to separate the two communities. It showed that the policy of FHA had a strong impact on the physical development.

(more)
See More
Fast, Free College Credit

Developing Effective Teams

Let's Ride
*No strings attached. This college course is 100% free and is worth 1 semester credit.

37 Sophia partners guarantee credit transfer.

299 Institutions have accepted or given pre-approval for credit transfer.

* The American Council on Education's College Credit Recommendation Service (ACE Credit®) has evaluated and recommended college credit for 32 of Sophia’s online courses. Many different colleges and universities consider ACE CREDIT recommendations in determining the applicability to their course and degree programs.

Tutorial