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Commas

Commas

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In this lesson, students will learn about the purpose of commas, as well as the grammatical rules for comma use within a sentence.

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Tutorial
This tutorial covers how commas work in a variety of sentence types and constructions, as well as how to identify mistakes in comma usage. The specific areas of focus include:
  1. Comma Usage
    1. Lists
    2. Compound and Complex Sentences
    3. Introductory Phrases
    4. Other Instances
  2. Correcting Comma Errors


1. Comma Usage

A comma is a punctuation symbol used in multiple ways to indicate a pause or a particular organization. Commas are one of the most useful tools.

Correctly used, they will make sentences clearer and improve your organization. Incorrect use, however, can cause confusing sentences or even create unintended meanings.

Without commas to separate the items on this list, it seems that this speaker eats crafts and pets:

Commas helps separate and organize the relationship between words and phrases in many kinds of sentences. Therefore, it’s not useful for a writer to just distribute them randomly, as some authors do.

Unless you know that a comma belongs in a sentence because there is a rule indicating so, it’s better to leave the comma out. In the above example, your reader will probably assume that you don’t eat pets and crafts, but that instead, you love eating, crafting, and pets.

A comma where it doesn’t belong can create more confusion than a comma that’s missing altogether, but the best thing to do is to use commas appropriately wherever they belong.

Comma
A punctuation symbol used in multiple ways to indicate a pause or a particular organization


1a. Lists

In a series or a list of items, commas are used to separate each item. When you have three or more entries in the list, then you have a series; if there’s just two, then it’s only a pair.

Here you use a comma after the first item, Nashville, and then after each other item in the list, culminating in the final comma, which should go before the “and” or the “or” that will round out the list.

The same holds true when your series features items that are phrases, not singular words, as in this example:

In this sentence, each phrase serves as its own entry in the list.


1b. Compound and Complex Sentences

Commas follow particular rules in particular sentence constructions, as well; they are very important in both compound and complex sentences.

A complex sentence is a sentence that combines at least one dependent clause with at least one independent clause. A compound sentence is a sentence that combines two or more independent clauses. In both types of sentences, commas separate these clauses.

In compound sentences that are combined using coordinating conjunctions, the comma is placed before that coordinating conjunction, as shown here:

See how the comma in each of those sentences comes before the coordinating conjunction?

In complex sentences, the comma may separate the independent and dependent clause. However, this will only happen when the dependent clause comes first, not when the independent clause is first.

A complex sentence where the independent clause comes first will look like this:

But if you were to reverse the order and put the dependent clause first, then you would need a comma to separate the two:

Notice in that sentence how the comma separates the dependent clause and links it to the independent clause that comes second.

Is the following a compound or a complex sentence?

This is a compound sentence, so you would add the comma before the coordinating conjunction.

Complex Sentence
A sentence that combines at least one dependent clause with at least one independent clause
Compound Sentence
A sentence that combines two or more independent clauses


1c. Introductory Phrases

Another place that you need commas is in introductory phrases. In these constructions, the comma sets off the introductory phrase, separating it from the sentence it’s going to introduce.

That might look like this:

Notice here that the comma comes at the end of the introductory phrase, “on snowy days,” and before the rest of the sentence.

When you read this out loud, think about where you would naturally pause. You wouldn’t say, “On snowy days it’s, common for many people to work from home,” or “On, snowy days it’s common for many people to work from home.” Those just don’t feel right.


1d. Other Instances

There are some other places that you might find commas. Commas surround interruptions in sentences, as in the following two examples, which indicate that these interruptions are their own units of meaning.

Similarly, commas set off dialogue or quotations, indicating that the words quoted or spoken are separate from the rest of the words.

You’ll also see commas in dates and geographic names. In the US, you indicate dates like this:

The comma separates the month and day from the year. In geography, you do the same to separate the city from the state it’s in:

At times, you might even find a comma in a place where you can’t think of any universal rule that makes it need to go there. And yet, that comma might be necessary for clarity. That’s okay; sometimes those commas are just necessary.


2. Correcting Comma Errors

You’ll often find that you catch comma errors when you’re in the proofreading stage of the writing process, so be sure to read out loud.

Likewise, when you’re looking for places to add commas, you can read your sentences aloud to see where in natural conversational speech you might pause. That’s usually, though not always, a good clue that a comma belongs there.

Read the following sentence aloud, and then decide where you would put your comma.
You probably paused after the phrase “After a heavy snow,” and therefore put a comma there.


Now consider this short paragraph:

Is it missing any commas? Yes. First, it’s missing one here:

You know this because when you read this part aloud, you find that you pause here. Additionally, if you look at the sentence structure, you can see that “if skiing is too intimidating” is a dependent clause subordinate to the independent clause, “snowshoeing can be fun.” Since that dependent clause comes first, there needs to be a comma separating the two.

Did you find any extra commas? Look at that first sentence, and read it out loud:

You wouldn’t naturally pause there, so by reading aloud, you caught an extra comma that you can now remove.

In this tutorial, you learned that commas are a punctuation symbol used in multiple ways to indicate a pause or a particular organization. Correct comma usage is important for clear writing, and there are several common situations in which commas are used: lists, compound and complex sentences, and introductory phrases. Some other instances where you might see commas are to set off interruptions and dialogue, and to separate dates and locations.

You also practiced correcting comma errors in sentences and paragraphs. Reading aloud is a great way to spot places where you either need to add a comma or remove an unnecessary one.

Good luck!

Source: This work is adapted from Sophia author Martina Shabram.

TERMS TO KNOW
  • Comma

    A punctuation symbol used in multiple ways to indicate a pause or a particular organization.

  • Complex Sentence

    A sentence that combines at least one dependent clause with at least one independent clause.

  • Compound Sentence

    A sentence that combines two or more independent clauses.