3 Tutorials that teach Conclusions
Take your pick:


Author: Gavin McCall

This lesson teaches how to write excellent conclusions for your essay.

See More
Fast, Free College Credit

Developing Effective Teams

Let's Ride
*No strings attached. This college course is 100% free and is worth 1 semester credit.

28 Sophia partners guarantee credit transfer.

281 Institutions have accepted or given pre-approval for credit transfer.

* The American Council on Education's College Credit Recommendation Service (ACE Credit®) has evaluated and recommended college credit for 25 of Sophia’s online courses. Many different colleges and universities consider ACE CREDIT recommendations in determining the applicability to their course and degree programs.


Video Transcription

Download PDF

Welcome back to English Composition. I'm Gavin McCall. Thanks for joining me.

What are we going to learn today? Today, we'll focus on conclusions, the ways writers can bring their arguments and essays to a close. We'll talk about three different approaches to conclusions, the summary approach, the expansion approach, and the hybrid approach, and we'll give examples of each.

The first thing we should say when beginning a discussion about conclusions is that after the introduction, the conclusion is the most important part of an essay. It's the last point, the last idea, the very last words. They're what will be rattling around in your readers' heads when they put your text down, sitting and thinking about what they just read. So it makes sense for you, or any writer, to pay special attention to how the last paragraphs and sentences of a text come together.

Remember that a conclusion doesn't have to be just one paragraph, but rather, the writer should find whatever approach works best for a particular project. Summary and expansion, opening up and opening out, it's all game.

Besides putting a physical end to the text, the conclusion needs to wrap up the essay and give readers a feeling of cohesion and closure. One way writers do this is by referring back to the introduction, to create a sense of circular motion. If, for example, a particular technique was used in the first paragraph, like an anecdote, or definition, or a quotation, in revisiting or mentioning it at or near the end of a text is often a good idea. But don't get me wrong. Even if a technique was not used earlier, you can still included it in the conclusion. After all, a conclusion is always more than just a summary of what's come before it.

That being said, summaries are a big part of many highly effective conclusions. This approach entails briefly noting the essay's major points, and restating the thesis-- in different words than before, of course. This is a fairly basic form of conclusion. However, it can be particularly useful in essays that espouse a long, complicated, or multipart argument. Here's an example of an effective summarising conclusion.

"Before that night, I never thought much about what it means to be male. Before then, I never worried about the ways I might be perceived as a threat to women. I knew, as you saw, that I had no ill intentions, but before that night I never thought about how little we know about the intentions of others. Before that night, I thought all that mattered was that I was a good person, and that I acted like it, because before that night I didn't understand the hundred and thousand ways at all of us are already part of a bigger system, and that our actions, and our inactions, are only part of the problem."

Though you don't have the rest of the essay, suffice to say that just about all of the points here were raised earlier, though not in so close a context, and never with the refrain, "before that night," to build momentum. And although this is an example of what's generally considered to be a basic form of conclusion, as you can see, summaries can do a lot of work for an argument when they're structured effectively.

Another approach to conclusions is to expand the discussion beyond the scope of the essay's thesis. These types of conclusions work most often by raising questions that still need answers, or which are not possible to answer in the time and space allowed, or by listing work or research that still needs to be done, or even bring up related ideas you have but weren't able to incorporate into the text, due to space and time constraints. This kind of conclusion has the advantage of being able to up the ante of your main points, by gesturing towards the urgency or importance of your ideas, as well as showing that you know more, and have thought more about your topic that can be incorporated in the space allowed.

You can also stake out territory for research, or thinking that you might want to do later. This is particularly common in subject specific arguments. For example, a graduate student's first research paper about a subject he or she might want to pursue is a dissertation later. The expansion approach is also common in arguments trying to persuade readers to take a specific action, as it can gesture towards other, broader reasons for doing so, without actually have to go into detail about them.

As an example, this conclusion, taken from an essay about evolution and technological development, gesture towards a broader argument.

"In many ways, we are the ultimate specialists, though our specialization-- tool using-- has allowed us to spread across more of the planet than any other large animal in Earth's history. But the tools we now use are so complicated, and diverse, and all encompassing, that virtually none of us are capable of understanding or using, much less building or maintaining, every piece of technology that impacts our lives. Taken to this extreme, our specialization is, like in the plants and animals we try so hard to separate ourselves from, as much a weakness as it is a strength. We owe it to ourselves to learn to grow plants, to raise crops and livestock, to survive in wild lands without packaged food. We don't have to actually do this, but if we did have to, we should be able."

As you can see, this conclusion isn't restating the argument, but rather brings up a broader topic, one beyond the scope of the essay itself.

In modern academic essays, it's very common for conclusions to incorporate some elements of both the summary and expansion approaches, taking advantage of the strengths of both. The following example does just this, first by summarizing the main claims that the earlier argument made, and then expanding upon it, to perform a call to action while gesturing towards the many other aspects of modern life that, like the blue roses this essay is about, are more illusion than reality.

"We like our flowers to be big and unblemished, to last long in a vase, and we like them to come in just the right color. We don't want to think about what has to happen first. We don't want to think about the natural borders that have to be crossed. And we don't want to think about all the work that has to be done to produce the perfect bloom. And we especially don't want to be told that something isn't possible. After hundreds of years' worth of selective breeding, after decades of research and manipulation, after all of our high tech tricks, the closest thing to a truly blue rose you're likely to see will have been created by a very simple, very old trick. I find this to be a comfort-- to make a blue rose yourself, put a plain white rose in a vase of blue dye, and in doing so get yourself a little closer to the process."

Now that we've read three conclusions that wrap up their essays fairly effectively, let's take a look at one that doesn't do so well. I won't subject you to listening to it. But if you're interested in seeing the difference between this and the other conclusions, pause the video and check it out.

As you can see, this essay's conclusion was working with the summary approach. But since it was so vaguely stated-- for example, we don't see what, if anything the essay is actually arguing about the Fifth Amendment-- and so it doesn't have the power to do much more than remind the reader of what they just read. And if you've just read the essay, you'd have no need to read this, too, which is always a sign of an incomplete, or incompletely realized conclusion.

What have we learned today? We learned about conclusions, including the three primary approaches that writers take, summary, expansion, and a hybrid of both. I'm Gavin McCall. Thanks for joining me.

Summary Approach
Expansion Approach
Hybrid Approach