This lesson will cover artwork from the years of 1907 to 1912 in Paris, France. This city is important as it was Paris, France that Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque worked independently and together in the early part of the 20th century.
Below is a timeline highlighting the period of time covered in this lesson:
The Cubist movement encompasses a style of art and philosophy regarding how art portrays subject matter, specifically in how perspective is used. Georges Braque is noted for commenting on what he saw as the confinement of traditional art instruction, and thought of Cubism as a way of breaking free from that confinement.
As a style, Cubism includes:
This below painting is called Les Demoiselles d'Avignon. It is considered the painting that really started the whole Cubist movement. Notice how it is definitely a different take on the more traditional female nude paintings from times past:
Picasso completely throws aside traditional depictions of perspective in the above piece of artwork. He reduces the entire image to the very immediate two-dimensional picture plane in the foreground. The figures, as well as the surrounding space, are broken up into shards of geometric forms. The space in which the women exist seems as tangible as the women themselves.
The figure on the far left was supposedly originally a man, possibly a medical student. Picasso reworked the figure of the man to move the viewer into the role of the customer. It's no longer the gentleman entering on the left, which is now a woman. It's us. We are the customer.
Notice the angular depictions of these women in Picasso's image; they appear dangerous-looking. Picasso's posturing of the two central figures was considered to be particularly divisive. Matisse felt that Picasso was mocking modern art, like Matisse's work, something that almost broke their friendship apart.
It is important to note several influences on Cubism:
In fact, many artists of this time showed interest in primitive art of other cultures, such as those of Africa or the South Pacific Islands colonized by the French, like Tahiti.
Picasso was interested in the superficial qualities of simplification and abstraction, which worked well in this new design aesthetic. While some of his techniques caused tension between Picasso and the art community, not everyone was appalled. The French artist Georges Braque saw great potential in Picasso's vision. And the two began a joint endeavor and friendship to create a new form of art, an art form that built upon the formal innovations of artists like Cezanne, who sought to reduce elements of a composition to their basic geometric forms and broke with the traditional illusionistic depiction of 3D space.
Braque and Picasso developed two forms of Cubism, analytic and synthetic. One of the best ways to understand these two forms of Cubism is to compare and contrast them.
Above is an example of Analytic Cubism. It's oil on canvas. Analytic Cubism follows suit with the painting that inspired it, Les Demoiselles, which makes sense given that Analytic Cubism was slightly earlier than Synthetic Cubism chronologically. Similar to a broken mirror, the analytic composition is broken up into geometric shards, giving us multiple perspectives simultaneously. This hadn't really been done before, at least not so overtly.
The subject matter is somewhat discernible. For instance, if you look closely at the image of Violin and Candlestick by Georges Braque above, you might see the images of the violin and the candlestick Although this painting is not completely abstract, one can see that art is starting to head in that direction.
This above collage is an example of Synthetic Cubism, which is a synthesis of different types of media.
This piece by Picasso may just be the first example of collage in high art. Picasso has taken the idea of using overlapping geometric forms, but has used scraps of real materials, like paper, rather than painted forms. It is hard to discern what it represents for certain. It seems to be more abstract than the example of Violin and Candlestick by Georges Braque, but it is not completely abstract.
Source: THIS WORK IS ADAPTED FROM SOPHIA AUTHOR IAN MCCONNELL.
A 20th century art movement characterized by qualities of abstracted figures and forms, overlapping planes and facets, and colors that are often muted browns or monochromatic tones.
A technique of inventing shapes and characteristics that would symbolize an object or person.
A technique that incorporates the methods of ‘analytic cubism’ but uses collage and actual overlapped materials to represent a metaphor for life and art.
A French word meaning “a pasting,” it is artwork created by using the technique of layering unrelated scraps or fragments into a composition.