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Cubism

Cubism

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This lesson will discuss Cubism.

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Tutorial
Iberian sculpture and primitive African masks were just two influences on Cubism. Interestingly, the artistic movement of Cubism began to break traditions in European art. This lesson will cover:
  1. Period of Time and Location: Cubism
  2. Cubism
    1. Les Demoiselles d'Avignon
  3. Analytic and Synthetic Cubism
    1. Violin and Candlestick
    2. Still Life with Chair Caning

Cubism extended the formal innovations of Cezanne and made a break with the illusionistic depiction of space in the European tradition that preceded it.


1. Period of Time and Location: Cubism

This lesson will cover artwork from the years of 1907 to 1912 in Paris, France. This city is important as it was Paris, France that Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque worked independently and together in the early part of the 20th century.

Below is a timeline highlighting the period of time covered in this lesson:


2. Cubism

The Cubist movement encompasses a style of art and philosophy regarding how art portrays subject matter, specifically in how perspective is used. Georges Braque is noted for commenting on what he saw as the confinement of traditional art instruction, and thought of Cubism as a way of breaking free from that confinement.

As a style, Cubism includes:

  • Multiple views/ multiple perspectives within the same composition
  • Reduction of 3D space to flatten
Two-dimensional planes Geometric construction

  • Influence from the superficial expressive qualities of primitive forms of art
    • Examples: mask art of Africa, Tahiti, and the Marquesas Islands.
Cubism
A 20th century art movement characterized by qualities of abstracted figures and forms, overlapping planes and facets, and colors that are often muted browns or monochromatic tones.

3a. Les Demoiselles d'Avignon

This below painting is called Les Demoiselles d'Avignon. It is considered the painting that really started the whole Cubist movement. Notice how it is definitely a different take on the more traditional female nude paintings from times past:

File:2544-Screen_Shot_2016-11-17_at_7.47.51_PM.png

Picasso intended the painting to be shocking. He wanted challenge the work of Matisse, his friend and rival who was more popular at the time. Mission accomplished! This painting was extremely controversial at the time. For example, the name was in reference to Avignon, the temporary 14th century home of the Papal court was. However, Avignon is also the name of a red light district in Barcelona, Spain, which is probably what this painting is referring to.

Picasso completely throws aside traditional depictions of perspective in the above piece of artwork. He reduces the entire image to the very immediate two-dimensional picture plane in the foreground. The figures, as well as the surrounding space, are broken up into shards of geometric forms. The space in which the women exist seems as tangible as the women themselves.

Try thinking about Cubist art by looking at it from the perspective of looking at a broken mirror or a stained glass window. The nature of stained glass places everything in the immediate foreground, seen above. Just like a broken mirror, Picasso's image is broken into shards. Each seem to show a slightly different perspective, some more noticeably than others.

The figure on the far left was supposedly originally a man, possibly a medical student. Picasso reworked the figure of the man to move the viewer into the role of the customer. It's no longer the gentleman entering on the left, which is now a woman. It's us. We are the customer.

The women stare directly at the viewer, creating a similar disinterested, interaction that recalls Manet's Olympia, shown below:

File:2545-Screen_Shot_2016-11-17_at_7.48.38_PM.png

Notice the angular depictions of these women in Picasso's image; they appear dangerous-looking. Picasso's posturing of the two central figures was considered to be particularly divisive. Matisse felt that Picasso was mocking modern art, like Matisse's work, something that almost broke their friendship apart.

It is important to note several influences on Cubism:

  • Influence of Iberian sculpture
    • Almond-shaped eye
  • Influence of African masks
    • Primitive details
    • Two figures on the far right

In fact, many artists of this time showed interest in primitive art of other cultures, such as those of Africa or the South Pacific Islands colonized by the French, like Tahiti.


4. Analytic and Synthetic Cubism

Picasso was interested in the superficial qualities of simplification and abstraction, which worked well in this new design aesthetic. While some of his techniques caused tension between Picasso and the art community, not everyone was appalled. The French artist Georges Braque saw great potential in Picasso's vision. And the two began a joint endeavor and friendship to create a new form of art, an art form that built upon the formal innovations of artists like Cezanne, who sought to reduce elements of a composition to their basic geometric forms and broke with the traditional illusionistic depiction of 3D space.

Braque and Picasso developed two forms of Cubism, analytic and synthetic. One of the best ways to understand these two forms of Cubism is to compare and contrast them.

4a. Violin and Candlestick

Take a look at this first image called Violin and Candlestick by Georges Braque from 1910 :

File:2546-Screen_Shot_2016-11-17_at_7.49.50_PM.png

Above is an example of Analytic Cubism. It's oil on canvas. Analytic Cubism follows suit with the painting that inspired it, Les Demoiselles, which makes sense given that Analytic Cubism was slightly earlier than Synthetic Cubism chronologically. Similar to a broken mirror, the analytic composition is broken up into geometric shards, giving us multiple perspectives simultaneously. This hadn't really been done before, at least not so overtly.

The subject matter is somewhat discernible. For instance, if you look closely at the image of Violin and Candlestick by Georges Braque above, you might see the images of the violin and the candlestick Although this painting is not completely abstract, one can see that art is starting to head in that direction.

4b. Still Life with Chair Caning

This second example is called Still Life with Chair Caning by Pablo Picasso from 1912:

File:2547-Screen_Shot_2016-11-17_at_7.50.11_PM.png

This above collage is an example of Synthetic Cubism, which is a synthesis of different types of media.

The easiest way to tell the two styles apart is by the type of media used. Analytic Cubism generally used just one medium, while synthetic Cubism is a synthesis of multiple types of media, like paper and oil painting.

This piece by Picasso may just be the first example of collage in high art. Picasso has taken the idea of using overlapping geometric forms, but has used scraps of real materials, like paper, rather than painted forms. It is hard to discern what it represents for certain. It seems to be more abstract than the example of Violin and Candlestick by Georges Braque, but it is not completely abstract.

While artists like Wassily Kandinsky eventually made the leap into complete abstraction, this is something that Braque and Picasso never moved into.

Synthetic Cubism
A technique that incorporates the methods of ‘analytic cubism’ but uses collage and actual overlapped materials to represent a metaphor for life and art.
Analytic Cubism
A technique of inventing shapes and characteristics that would symbolize an object or person.
Collage
A French word meaning “a pasting,” it is artwork created by using the technique of layering unrelated scraps or fragments into a composition.


Cubism, an influential artistic movement, broke traditions in European art. In this lesson, you learned about the period of time and location of Cubism.

In doing so, you explored Cubism, which is characterized by qualities of abstracted figures and forms, overlapping planes and facets, and colors that are often muted browns or monochromatic tones. An important piece of art from this time is Les Demoiselles d'Avignon. Remember, this piece of artwork is considered the painting that started the entire Cubist movement.

Finally, you compared and contrasted Analytic and Synthetic Cubism. Two examples were used to do this: Violin and Candlestick and Still Life with Chair Caning. While synthetic cubism incorporates the methods of analytic cubism, it uses collage and actual overlapped materials to represent a metaphor for life and art. In contrast, analytic cubism is technique of inventing shapes and characteristics that would symbolize an object or person.

Source: THIS WORK IS ADAPTED FROM SOPHIA AUTHOR IAN MCCONNELL.

TERMS TO KNOW
  • Cubism

    A 20th century art movement characterized by qualities of abstracted figures and forms, overlapping planes and facets, and colors that are often muted browns or monochromatic tones.

  • Analytic cubism

    A technique of inventing shapes and characteristics that would symbolize an object or person.

  • Synthetic cubism

    A technique that incorporates the methods of ‘analytic cubism’ but uses collage and actual overlapped materials to represent a metaphor for life and art.

  • Collage

    A French word meaning “a pasting,” it is artwork created by using the technique of layering unrelated scraps or fragments into a composition.