Color blindness is a type of disorder that is more common in males than females. Red-green color blindness is the most common type of color blindness. This disorder is inherited and occurs when the cone cells have altered pigments. The altered cones and pigments have a difficult time detecting red and green light, which means the brain cannot tell the difference between these two colors.
Astigmatism is a type of disorder that's characterized by blurred vision and is an inherited disorder. This causes parts of the eye to be misshapen, generally the lens or the cornea, affecting the eye's ability to properly focus light, causing blurred vision.
Myopia, also known as nearsightedness, is a disorder that occurs when distant objects appear blurred. This happens because the eyeball is wider than it is tall, and images focus in front of the retina, rather than on it.
Hyperopia, is the opposite of myopia; rather than distant objects appearing blurred, near objects will appear blurred. This happens because the eyeball is taller than it is wide so that images will focus behind the retina rather than on it. Most people who wear glasses for whatever reason, generally do so because of either myopia or hyperopia.
Conjunctivitis is a type of disorder characterized by redness, discharge, and discomfort of the eye. It is generally caused by bacteria or allergies. Remember the conjunctiva is a clear, transparent mucous membrane on the outside of the eye that helps protect it.
Retinoblastoma is a deterioration of vision caused by a tumor and results in the surgical removal of the eye. This cancer of the retina could then spread to the optic nerve and the brain; because of the fear of this cancer spreading, the eye is often surgically removed.
Cataracts are a clouding of the lens of the eye, affecting how light can enter. When light enters, it is abnormally scattered because of the clouding of the lens. It not only affects how a person can see, but can also affect the appearance of the eye, giving the lens a milky appearance. This can be caused by aging or injury and is often common in people who have diabetes.
Glaucoma is when the aqueous humor builds up in the eyeball and causes too much pressure within the eye. The excess pressure presses on different nerves within the eye and causes vision eventually to start to deteriorate. Glaucoma is most often associated with aging.
Retinal detachment is when a person has blurred vision, loss of peripheral vision, or blindness because the retina has detached. This can happen because of an injury or a blow to the head, causing a tear in the retina. If this is caught very quickly, the different symptoms can usually be reversed. If it's something that's allowed to go untreated, it could heal on its own, but generally will have more long term negative effects.
Source: THIS WORK IS ADAPTED FROM SOPHIA AUTHOR AMANDA SODERLIND