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Disorders of the Eye

Disorders of the Eye

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This lesson will examine the cause and effect of various disorders of the eye.

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Tutorial

What's Covered

Welcome to this lesson today on disorders of the eye. Today you will be discussing characteristics and causes of various common disorders of they eye. These disorders can be caused from anything from illness to injury, diseases, genetics or aging. Specifically, you will look at the following disorders:

  1. Color Blindness
  2. Blurred Vision Disorders
  3. Conjunctivitis
  4. Retinoblastoma
  5. Cataracts
  6. Glaucoma
  7. Retinal Detachment

1. Color Blindness

Color blindness is a type of disorder that is actually more common in males than females. Red-green color blindness is the most common type of color blindness. This disorder is actually an inherited and occurs when the cone cells have altered pigments. The altered cones and pigments have a difficult time detecting red & green spectrums of light which means the brain cannot tell the difference between these two colors.

Term to Know

    • Color Blindness
    • An eye disorder in which a person is lacking cone cells that allow them to detect certain colors. Most often this occurs with the colors red and green.

2. Blurred Vision Disorders

Astigmatism is a type of disorder that's characterized by blurred vision and is an inherited disorder. This causes parts of the eye to be mishapen, generally the lens or the cornea, affecting the eye's ability to properly focus light causing blurred vision.

Myopia, also known as nearsightedness, is a disorder that occurs when distant objects appear blurred. This happens because the eyeball is wider than it is tall and images actually focus in front of the retina, rather than on it.

Hyperopia, is the opposite, rather than distant objects appearing blurred, near objects will appear blurred.This happens because the eyeball is taller than it is wide, so images will focus behind the retina rather than on it. Most people who wear glasses for whatever reason, generally do so because of one of these disorders.

Term to Know

    • Astigmatism
    • An eye disorder resulting in blurred vision due to the misshapen lens or cornea of the eye.

Term to Know

    • Myopia
    • An eye disorder in which a person has difficulty seeing distant objects because the eyeball is wider than it is tall causing images to focus in front of the retina.

Term to Know

    • Hyperopia
    • An eye disorder in which a person has difficulty seeing near objects because the eyeball is taller than it is wide causing images to focus behind the retina.

3. Conjnctivitis

Conjunctivitis is a type of disorder characterized by redness, discharge and discomfort of the eye, and it's generally caused by a bacteria or sometimes by allergies. Remember the conjuctiva is a clear, transparent mucous membrane on the outside of the eye that helps protect it.

Term to Know

    • Conjunctivitis
    • An eye disorder caused by bacteria or allergies which causes the membrane of the eye to become inflamed.

4. Retinoblastoma

Retinoblastoma is a deterioration of vision caused by a tumor and results in the surgical removal of the eye. This cancer of the retina could then spread to the optic nerve and to the brain; because of the fear of this cancer spreading the eye is typically surgically removed.

Term to Know

    • Retinoblastoma
    • Cancer of the retina.

5. Cataracts

Cataracts are a clouding of the lens of the eye, affecting how light can enter. When light enters it is abnormally scattered because of the clouding of the lens. It can not only affect how a person can actually see it can affect the appearance of the eye, giving the eye and lens a milky appearance. This can be caused by aging or injury and is oftentimes common in people who have diabetes. are more prone to cataracts, as well.

Term to Know

    • Cataracts
    • A disorder of the eye in which the clouding of the lens affects how light enters the eye.

6. Glaucoma

Glaucoma is when the aqueous humor builds up in the eyeball and causes too much pressure within the eye. The excess pressure presses on different nerves within the eye and causes vision eventually to start to deteriorate and is most often associated with aging.

Term to Know

    • Glaucoma
    • The deterioration of vision due to the buildup of aqueous humor in the eye.

7. Retinal Detachment

Retinal detachment is when a person has blurred vision, loss of peripheral vision, or blindness because the retina has detached. This can happen because of an injury, or a blow to the head, causing a tear in the retina. If this is caught very quickly, the different characteristics here can usually be reversed. If it's something that's allowed to go on its own, it could heal on its own, but generally will have more long-term negative effects.

Term to Know

    • Retinal Detachment
    • An eye disorder resulting in a tear in the retina and vision problems.

Summary

This lesson has been an overview on various disorders of the eye, their characteristics and causes. Specifically, you learned about the following disorders: color blindness, disorders connected to blurred vision, conjunctivitis, retinoblastoma, cataracts, glaucoma, and retinal detachment.

Keep up the learning and have a great day!

Source: THIS WORK IS ADAPTED FROM SOPHIA AUTHOR AMANDA SODERLIND

TERMS TO KNOW
  • Color Blindness

    An eye disorder in which a person is lacking cone cells that allow them to detect certain colors. Most often this occurs with the colors red and green.

  • Astigmatism

    An eye disorder resulting in blurred vision due to the misshapen lens or cornea of the eye.

  • Myopia

    An eye disorder in which a person has difficulty seeing distant objects because the eyeball is wider than it is tall causing images to focus in front of the retina.

  • Hyperopia

    An eye disorder in which a person has difficulty seeing near objects because the eyeball is taller than it is wide causing images to focus behind the retina.

  • Conjunctivitis

    An eye disorder caused by bacteria or allergies which causes the membrane of the eye to become inflamed.

  • Retinoblastoma

    Cancer of the retina.

  • Cataracts

    A disorder of the eye in which the clouding of the lens affects how light enters the eye.

  • Glaucoma

    The deterioration of vision due to the buildup of aqueous humor in the eye.

  • Retinal Detachment

    An eye disorder resulting in a tear in the retina and vision problems.