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Early Life

Early Life

Author: Sophia Tutorial
Description:

Identify challenges for plant and animal life adapting to land.

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Tutorial

what's covered
In this tutorial, we're going to provide a brief overview of early life formation on earth, from single-celled organisms to plant and animal life, and their transition from water to land.

Our discussion breaks down as follows:

  1. Early Organisms
  2. Plant Adaptation
  3. Water to Land Transition


1. Early Organisms

Early life didn't just pop into existence. It was a process that took place over the course of millions of years. At first, small, inorganic molecules in a water environment combined into larger, more complex organic molecules as a result of lightning.

These molecules became encapsulated in a membrane over time, and eventually, these membrane molecules gained the ability to replicate themselves. They were the earliest forms of life, called prokaryotes (shown below), and they formed about 3.8 billion years ago.

Prokaryote


2. Plant Adaptation

Over time, prokaryotes split into varying types, which included bacteria. They developed the capacity to metabolize things, including each other. One of these types of metabolism was photosynthesis. Photosynthetic metabolism led to free oxygen production.

Some prokaryotes began to form symbiotic relationships with each other about 1.8 billion years ago. One would protect the other, while the other focused on energy production. This relationship led to eukaryotes. About 600 million years ago, eukaryotes led to multi-celled organisms, where different cell types specialized in different tasks for the functioning of the whole. This led to fungi, algae, plants, and animals.


3. Water to Land Transition

Eventually, water subsided from certain parts of the planet, which allowed enough dry land for plants to adapt to a terrestrial environment. As more terrestrial plants evolved, they provided a potential food source for animals to consume on land.

Plants and animals faced other challenges to adapting to land, such as:

  • Drying out and dying if they couldn't find a water source
  • Solar radiation, which could lead to mutations that killed organisms
  • Learning to move about outside of water with a different sense of gravity

Organisms also had to adapt the process of reproduction to life on land, because all such processes had previously relied on an aquatic environment. It wasn't until enough oxygen collected in the atmosphere and then reacted with solar radiation to form a thick enough ozone layer that protected organisms from radiation, that land adaptation began in earnest.


summary
We talked about early life formation on earth, including prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which eventually led to the formation of plants and animals. We also discussed the transition of these plants and animals from water to land.

Source: Adapted from Sophia instructor Jensen Morgan, PROKARYOTES PD HTTP://BIT.LY/1BDCO9O