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Shortages that result from spending in excess of revenue.
Measure of the change in real GDP over periods of time; percent change in value of the sum of goods and services produced in a country’s natural borders over a specified time interval.
Typically policy set by a central government authority, whereby spending by the government is adjusted to stabilize economic activity.
The amount of a foreign currency obtained by exchanging a specified amount of domestic currency.
The cost of money; nominal interest is the prevailing rate; real interest reflects the prevailing rate adjusted for inflation (real = nominal rate minus the inflation rate); return on investment where return varies based on the risk profile of the investment, time horizon, opportunity cost of a comparable risk-free investment, and inflation expectations.