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Endocrine System
Next Generation: HS.LS1.2 MS.LS1.3 MS.LS1.3 NGSS

Endocrine System

Description:

This lesson will give an overview of the structure and function of the endocrine system including the function and interactions of hormones.

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Tutorial

What's Covered

Welcome to this lesson on the endocrine system and hormones. Today you will be learning about what the endocrine system is, and how hormones can interact within the endocrine system. Specifically, you will look at:

  1. Endocrine System Overview
  2. Opposing Hormone Interaction
  3. Synergistic Hormone Interaction
  4. Permissive Hormone Interaction

1. Endocrine System Overview

The endocrine system is a body system that consists of glands which contain cells that produce hormones. Hormones act to help manage and regulate various body activities and by regulating these various body activities, help to maintain homeostasis within the body. Hormones are a very important part of the body as signaling molecules. They're produced and secreted by the endocrine system and then carried by the blood to target cells.

Target cells are cells that are affected by that hormone. Many hormones play specific roles in specific parts of the body. Certain cells have a specific receptor for a certain type of hormone ensuring that hormone can only affect those cells. Because of this, not all cells are affected by all hormones.

Terms to Know

    • Endocrine System
    • A system of glands that produces and secretes hormones into the bloodstream; the endocrine system is used to communicate on a broad scale to the cells in the body.
    • Hormones
    • The major chemical messenger of the endocrine system, hormones are produced, stored and secreted by glands; hormones either increase or decrease activity of the cells with which they interact.

2. Opposing Hormone Interaction

Hormones can actually interact with each other in order to produce different effects. One type of hormone interaction is an opposing interaction; where the effect of one hormone opposes the effect of another.

Term to Know

    • Opposing Interaction
    • A term used to describe hormones that create opposite effects of one another; an example would be insulin lowers blood glucose while glucagon elevates blood glucose.

ExampleExamples of opposing hormone interactions are insulin and glucagon. Insulin is a type of hormone that helps to lower sugar levels, while glucagon is a type of hormone that helps to increase blood sugar levels. There are certain situations when these hormones need to be released, such as after a meal or when starved, but not at the same time.


3. Synergistic Hormone Interaction

Sometimes hormones can create synergistic interactions, which means the two hormones cooperate with each other to affect a target cell. Synergistic hormones will work together in order to effect a target cell, meaning they will cooperate in order to effect a target cell. Those two hormones are necessary in order to effect that target cell.

Terms to Know

    • Synergistic Interaction
    • A term used to describe hormones that create similar effects through slightly different mechanisms; an example would be ADH stimulating kidneys to retain water while aldosterone stimulates kidneys to retain sodium, which in turn retains water.
    • Target Cell
    • The cell or group of cells with which a hormone is designed to interact.

4. Permissive Hormone Interaction

A permissive interaction is when one hormone will prepare a cell for another hormone. In order for the second hormone to be able to effect the target cell, the target cell first has to be exposed to the first hormone. Think of it as one hormone will prep the cell for the other hormone to be able to take effect. The second hormone does not take effect until the cell has been exposed to the first hormone.

Term to Know

    • Permissive Interaction
    • When one hormone allows another hormone to have its full effect; an example would be thyroid hormones allowing growth hormone to have its full metabolic effects.

Summary

This lesson has been a brief overview on the endocrine system and hormone interactions. Specifically, you looked at opposing, synergistic, and permissive hormone interactions.

Keep up the learning and have a great day!

Source: THIS WORK IS ADAPTED FROM SOPHIA AUTHOR AMANDA SODERLIND

TERMS TO KNOW
  • Endocrine System

    A system of glands that produces and secretes hormones into the bloodstream; the endocrine system is used to communicate on a broad scale to the cells in the body.

  • Hormones

    The major chemical messenger of the endocrine system, hormones are produced, stored and secreted by glands; hormones either increase or decrease activity of the cells with which they interact.

  • Opposing Interaction

    A term used to describe hormones that create opposite effects of one another; an example would be insulin lowers blood glucose while glucagon elevates blood glucose.

  • Synergistic Interaction

    A term used to describe hormones that create similar effects through slightly different mechanisms; an example would be ADH stimulating kidneys to retain water while aldosterone stimulates kidneys to retain sodium, which in turn retains water.

  • Permissive Interaction

    When one hormone allows another hormone to have its full effect; an example would be thyroid hormones allowing growth hormone to have its full metabolic effects.

  • Target Cell

    The cell or group of cells with which a hormone is designed to interact.