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Enzymes and Energy

Enzymes and Energy

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Explain how changes in temperature, entropy and enthalpy effect gibbs free energy.

Understand how allosteric sites are used by cells and describe different forms of inhibition of enzymes.

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Tutorial

Enzymes

Feedback inhibition is a type of allosteric inhibition (when a regulator binds to an allosteric site [not the active site] and change the shape of the enzyme to shut it off) where the products produced at the end of the pathway binds to an enzyme along the path and shut it off. This allows the cells to stop itself from producing more of something than it needs. 

Source: Holtzclaw, Fred, and Theresa Holtzclaw. AP Test Prep Series. San Francisco: Pearson Education Inc., 2013. Print.

Energy

Energy is the ability to do work. Potential energy is stored energy or energy at rest; kinetic is energy in motion. Chemical energy is energy stored in chemical bonds and is, therefore, a type of potential energy. 

The first law of thermodynamics states that energy cannot be destroyed or created but it can be transferred or change forms. The second law of thermodynamics states that energy transformation (one type of energy to another) increases entropy. 

Catabolic pathways consist of exergonic reactions. In these reactions, energy is released as molecules are broken down. This is a spontaneous reaction and free energy is released to the system. Anabolic pathways consist of endergonic reactions which require an input of free energy to build molecules.  

Source: Holtzclaw, Fred, and Theresa Holtzclaw. AP Test Prep Series. San Francisco: Pearson Education Inc., 2013. Print.