In the early 1900s, marketing was basically advertising. Companies would advertise a product, let the public know it was out there, and then direct sales from the manufacturer to the actual consumer.
Then, about the time of the 1950s, the marketing concept was born. Now, the marketing concept is the idea that you go to market a product based on what it is that the customer wants first, and that first thing is going to be the most important thing. That's going to be essentially your target.
The concept of relationship marketing began in the 1980s, referring to the practice of identifying a brand with a certain lifestyle or club. It is a marketing approach that considers developing a long-term relationship more essential than an immediate sale.
Apple excels in relationship marketing. They have created a customer fanbase that follows every word and announcement the company makes with the same loyalty they would show to a great friend.
With marketing now, we see something called holistic marketing, which is a marketing approach that considers the entire business with its place in the world community as a consideration while it performs its business.
EXAMPLEBen and Jerry's focus is on transparency, and how they package and what their ingredients are. They are committed to things like fair trade agreements and organic or naturally sourced ingredients. The fact that they make a great product that people want to buy is also a consideration, but they strive to market themselves as an honest company with their holistic marketing.
Now, you'll notice behind the young lady, there is the statement, "If you want to fight, join the Marines." This is an early example of relationship marketing, long before it caught on in the 1980s. The Marines were an elite club that you joined not only to serve your country but also to hold that title of Marines.
You'll notice that this particular ad is advertising Women's History Month from March of 2009. They're trying to brand the Marine Corps as a more holistic or honest model whereby they are appealing to those who want to fight, perhaps, but they're also considering their place in the world and how they affect women's history. It's an interesting approach to progression.
Marketing managers are the people who liaise with all the marketing, advertising, and PR folks to ensure that everybody is on the same page regarding the marketing of a product or setting the image for the company.
What the job entails may depend on the size of the company, but either way, big or small, the marketing manager makes sure that everyone is speaking with one voice and that there's a consistency among the messages.
Marketing managers also ensure brand vision; that vision about where you want to be as a company or a brand is secure, and it stays consistent throughout that marketing process.
EXAMPLEConsider a logo used in a consistent way, or a similar voice used across multiple touchpoints. When you hear "CNN," it likely brings up a particular image in your mind. Perhaps it's that James Earl Jones voice in the background, "This is CNN." There's a consistency among the message and how that company--that brand--wants to portray itself.
Sometimes you'll hear about companies suing if someone uses their logo without their permission because they want to make sure that that particular logo is used in a specific and correct way that reflects how they want their brand to be perceived in the market.
The marketing manager also manages the marketing plan. Everything within the plan to market that product, image, or company is the responsibility of the marketing manager. He or she is the person who is responsible for the message in that plan and making sure it gets implemented in the way that the senior managers and the owners want it to be implemented.
Source: adapted from sophia instructor james howard