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What is factoring?

When we see a certain number such as 24, we just think of it as the number. To explain factoring, you have to look at what can be multiplied to make a particular number, in this case 24. So, now we think of 2 x 12, 6 x 4, and 8 x 3 as well as each sets negatives. Each of these numbers are called factors.

What does that have to do with factoring?

Factoring is essentially breaking a number down into it's smaller "factors" to simplify an equation.