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Fallacious Reasoning

Fallacious Reasoning

Author: Alesha Williams
Description:

 

To get the understanding of what Fallacious Reasoning is and when and how is it used and identified. Understand the 3 different types of fallacies that we use today and their definitions.

What you will KNOW

Defintion of Fallacious Reasonin

False Dilemma 

Straw Man

Begging the Question

Fallacious Reasoning

Definition: when one fails to met the three requirements (claim, premise, and conclusion) of a argument.

"I want it all, or nothing at all!"

 

When does Fallacious Reasoning occur?

If they do the AND factor..... 

1.)Accept premises that should be doubted

2.)Neglects relevant evidence

3.)Draws conclusion not supported by evidence

 

 

Types of Fallacies

       False Dilemma

       Straw Man

       Begging the Question 

 

 

 

 

 

False Dilemma

 

Defintion: A dilemma that can be shown to be false because either one of its premises is false or there is a three alternative

 

To defeat False Dilemma:

 

 

 

“Going between the horns”

Dilemma Form:

Either P or Q

If P then R

If Q then S

Therefore, either R or S

But, False dilemma is either P or Q so there is a third alternate.

 

“Grasping the horns”

Challenge one or both of the other 2 premises.

 

                                  Straw Man

Definition: when one misrepresents a opponent or competitor; or goes after the weaker opponent or competitor and ignoring the stronger one.

 

 

                       BEGGING the Question

 

Definition: to avoid the question

 

Fallacy Form:

                 A.

        Therefore A. 

 

 

 

 

 

(more)
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Tutorial

Begging the question

Source: roshilondon.com

Begging the question

Bill: "God must exist." 
Jill: "How do you know." 
Bill: "Because the Bible says so." 
Jill: "Why should I believe the Bible?" 
Bill: "Because the Bible was written by God."

 

question mark                 equal sign           gothic cross

 

 

Straw Man Fallacy

 

 

Straw Man

 

In a article by Eric Jubler he argued that America should “open up” its wilderness areas: “ the purist [conservationist] is, generally speaking, against everything... the purist believes that those who do not agree with him to rape the land.” 

 

 

False Dilemma

Are you a good father?

False Dilemma: Grasping the horns & Going between the horns

Horns

False Dilemma

Source: bigmouthery.com

Resources

 

About.com. (2011). Retrieved from http://grammar.about.com/

Cavender, N. M., & Kahane, H. (2010). Logic and Contemporary Rhetoric (pp. 47-48, 57-59, 67, 385, 386, 388). Wadsworth.

Dictionary.com. (2011). Retrieved from http://dictionary.reference.com/

Fallacy: Begging the Question. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.nizkor.org/‌features/‌fallacies/‌begging-the-question.html

False Dilemma [Video file]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/‌watch?v=Dln3DJEcghY

[Horns] [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://media.photobucket.com/‌image/‌horns/‌tavinsv/‌horns.jpg?o=47

[Politics] [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://media.photobucket.com/‌image/‌politics/‌Di51/‌Politics/‌POLITICS_black2010.jpg?o=3#!oZZ3QQcurrentZZhttp%3A%2F%2Fmedia.photobucket.com%2Fimage%2Fpolitics%2FDi51%2FPolitics%2FPOLITICS_black2010.jpg%3Fo%3D3

[Question Mark] [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://media.photobucket.com/‌image/‌question%20mark/‌kathleen1523/‌Question_mark.png?o=34

roshilondon.com. (2011). Retrieved from http://roshilondon.com/

[Sarah Palin] [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://media.photobucket.com/‌image/‌sarah%20palin/‌bangbangbbyjane/‌sarah%20palin/‌palin.jpg?o=9

[Stop Sign] [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://media.photobucket.com/‌image/‌stop%20sign/‌apieceowrk/‌Stop_Sign.jpg?o=19

The “Straw Man” Fallacy [Video file]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/‌watch?v=v5vzCmURh7o