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Female Reproductive System
Next Generation: HS.LS1.2 MS.LS1.3 MS.LS1.3 NGSS

Female Reproductive System

Author: Amanda Soderlind

Identify organs and glands associated with the female reproductive system.

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Source: Video and Images Created by Amanda Soderlind

Video Transcription

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Welcome to this lesson on the female reproductive system.

Today we are going to be discussing the structure and function of the female reproductive system.

The female reproductive is a body system specific to females that plays a role in the development of offspring from the time of conception through birth.

We're actually going to be using this diagram here, and we're going to be labeling the various components of the female reproductive system.

We're actually going to start here with the ovary. A female has two ovaries, one on each side. So we have one over here, and one over here. The ovaries produce and release egg cells. Oocytes are these immature egg cells that are produced in the ovaries, and they don't become mature unless they become fertilized.

From there, these egg cells, or sometimes also called gametes, will be released from the ovaries, and they will move into the ova duct. So this long tube right here is called the ova duct, and it's also sometimes referred to as the fallopian tube. The same thing would happen on this side, as well. So it would move through the fallopian tubes, and then this ova duct or fallopian tube is the location where fertilization of these egg cells would occur.

From there, regardless of if it becomes fertilized or not, it's going to move down towards the uterus. The uterus is this area right here. I'll go back quick and we'll label this ova duct. So the egg, whether or not it is fertilized, will move through the ova duct and into the uterus. The uterus is the location for the development of a fertilized egg. So if the egg is fertilized, it will develop into an embryo here in the uterus.

Some other components here that we're going to label. This right here is the myometrium. The myometrium is a muscular layer of the uterus. This layer will actually be able to expand quite a bit if a baby is developing within the uterus. So it expands to allow room for the developing baby.

The endometrium is another component related to the uterus. It's the inner lining of the uterus. This is where the embryo would implant. If the egg had become fertilized, it would implant onto the endometrium, and that's where it would began its development.

The cervix is this area down here. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus. So basically, it leads out to the vagina. So it's a part of the birth canal. It's the outer part of the uterus, the lower part of the uterus. And then in here is the vagina, and this is a part of the birth canal. It leads from the uterus to the outside. So it leads from the uterus to the outside as the baby is being born, and it's also the location where sperm enters.

Oogenesis is the word that we use for the formation of an egg. So oogenesis takes part in the ovary, the egg is then released into the ova duct, either becomes fertilized or not, moves down to the uterus. If it has been fertilized, it develops into a baby, and if not, that egg will later be expelled through menstruation, through the cervix, and then out the vagina.

This lesson has been an overview on the structure and function of the female reproductive system.

Terms to Know

The lower portion of the uterus which opens to the vagina.


The inner lining of the uterus.

Female Reproductive System

The female reproductive system’s primary job is to mature and release oocytes (eggs) - a process called oogenesis. The secondary functions are to gestate, nourish and deliver the child. The primary organs are the ovaries while the accessory organs are the vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes and breasts.


Cells (eggs in females, sperm in males) which contain half the DNA the rest of the body's (somatic) cells have. Thus, when two gametes (a sperm and an egg) combine, each with half the normal amount of DNA, the resulting embryo has the full complement of DNA. 


Immature form of ova (eggs cells) that are released from ovaries.


The process by which egg cells are formed.


Female reproductive organs that produce oocytes.


A duct that connects ovaries to the uterus through which egg cells travel; also called "fallopian tubes".


A mature egg cell (the plural of "ovum" is "ova").


An organ of the female reproductive system in which fertilized eggs develop into an embryo.


The organ of the female reproductive system which serves as the location where sperm enter and also serves as the birth canal.