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Gel Electrophoresis

Gel Electrophoresis

Author: Allyson Dunn
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Gel Electro Notes



Gel Electrophoresis Notes

Chapter 13 (pgs.345-346)


I. What is Gel Electrophoresis?




Gel Electrophoresis:

a method that uses electricity to separate and analyze __________________, based on their _______ and ____________.





an organism’s __________________ of hereditary information encoded in ________.









1. Each person’s DNA sequences (genome) is ___________________ from every other person’s DNA

2. This principle allows for each person to have their own _______________________________.

3. ____________________ allows scientists to analyze a person’s DNA quickly and cost-effectively.




DNA fingerprinting:

Another term for gel electrophoresis, the process of creating a “fingerprint” of DNA






4. Applications for Gel electrophoresis:

  a. _____________________ with recipients in transplant programs

  b. ____________________________ whose DNA may match evidence left at crime scenes

  c. Exonerate wrongly accused people of crimes

  d. _____________________ from crimes and catastrophes

  e. _____________________ and other family relationships 


II. How does DNA fingerprinting work?                                                                        

1. Mapping out an entire person’s genome is too time consuming and too expensive

2. Look at specific ________________________________ and use them for identification

3. In every person’s genome there are ___________________________ of DNA

4. Use ___________________________ to cut at these landmarks repeating sections




Restriction Enzymes:

Are enzymes that _____________ at specific recognition __________________







III. How do we use DNA fragments to identify a person?

1. Each individual has ______________________ of fragments because of the way they were cut by 
     restriction enzymes.

2. The goal of gel electrophoresis is to ______________those fragments by length so you can compare  individuals.

3. _____________ are used to take samples of DNA and insert it into a ___ inside of an agorose gel.

4. The gel has a matrix that allows the fragments to move through the gel.

5. DNA is ___________________________, which means if expose it to a current the DNA will “run”
    towards to the _______________ probe.

6. Not all fragments will move at the same speed

      A. ________________DNA fragments will move ____________through the gel because they can
        moreeasily maneuver through the matrix.

      B. ________________DNA fragments will move _____________ through the gel because it is
          much more difficult for them to maneuver through the matrix.

7. The result is a barcode-like picture with the longer parts of DNA at the top and the short
     parts of DNA at the bottom.

8. Each person’s fragments are at different ______________ =  each person has a different bar code or ______________________.


Why is each person’s DNA fingerprint unique to each individual?







What is another term for DNA fingerprinting?









Explain two ways Gel electrophoresis can be used:









Why is it important to have an electric current running through the agarose gel?


Gel Electrophoresis Video