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Author: Wjdi Y.Saleh

Advanced students may be required to translate whole texts word-for-word. The method has two main goals: to enable students to read and translate literature written in the target language, and to further students’ general intellectual development.

The grammar-translation method originated from the practice of teaching Latin. In the early 1500s, Latin was the most widely-studied foreign language due to its prominence in government, academia, and business. However, during the course of the century the use of Latin dwindled, and it was gradually replaced by English, French, and Italian. After the decline of Latin, the purpose of learning it in schools changed. Whereas previously students had learned Latin for the purpose of communication, it came to be learned as a purely academic subject.

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The mainstay of classroom materials for the grammar-translation method is the textbook. Textbooks in the 19th century attempted to codify the grammar of the target language into discrete rules for students to learn and memorize. A chapter in a typical grammar-translation textbook would begin with a bilingual vocabulary list, after which there would be grammar rules for students to study and sentences for them to translate.[1] Some typical sentences from 19th-century textbooks are as follows:

The philosopher pulled the lower jaw of the hen.

My sons have bought the mirrors of the Duke.

The cat of my aunt is more treacherous than the dog of your uncle.[3]

Source: English


Grammar-translation classes are usually conducted in the students’ native language. Grammar rules are learned deductively; students learn grammar rules by rote, and then practice the rules by doing grammar drills and translating sentences to and from the target language. More attention is paid to the form of the sentences being translated than to their content. When students reach more advanced levels of achievement, they may translate entire texts from the target language. Tests often consist of the translation of classical texts.

Source: english


The grammar-translation method was the standard way languages were taught in schools from the 17th to the 19th century. Despite attempts at reform from Roger Ascham, Montaigne, Comenius and John Locke, no other methods gained any significant popularity during this time.

Later, theorists such as Vietor, Passy, Berlitz, and Jespersen began to talk about what a new kind of foreign language instruction needed, shedding light on what the grammar translation was missing. They supported teaching the language, not about the language, and teaching in the target language, emphasizing speech as well as text. Through grammar translation, students lacked an active role in the classroom, often correcting their own work and strictly following the textbook.


explaning passive voice !

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Canada Food Guide Basics -Servings

Canada Food Guide Basics
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Nutritional Labelling

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Interactive tool: Nutriental Labelling
Complete the quiz after you finish the tutorial.
Determining Nutrient Intake for Different Serving Sizes

It is important to remember that the information shown on the nutrition facts panel is based on a specific serving size of the food.
If the amount of a food that you actually eat (your serving portion) is different from the serving size shown on the package you will need to do some simple math in order to figure out how many calories, or how much protein, fat or other nutrients you will take in.
Follow these steps to do a serving size conversion:
Begin by estimating how much of the food you will eat.  Estimate your portion size in terms of common household measures, such as millilitres (cups) or grams (ounces).  It sometimes helps to have some visual cues to help you make an estimate. For instance, a one cup serving is about the size of a baseball.
Next, look at the serving size shown on the nutrition facts panel of the food you are considering.  Read carefully and try to visualize the amount shown as the serving size.
Then, compare your own estimated serving portion to the serving size shown on the nutrition facts panel.  Are they exactly the same?
If so, you will take in exactly the same amount of nutrients shown on the label. 
If not, your portion size will result in you taking in more or less nutrients than shown on the label.
If your portion size is larger than the serving size on the label, you will need to multiply the amount of each nutrient on the label. For instance, if the label’s serving size on a bottle of salad dressing is 15 mL (1 Tbsp) and you plan to eat 45 mL (3 Tbsp), then you would need to multiply the amount of each nutrient by three, because you will eat three times more than the label’s serving size.
If your portion size is smaller than the serving size on the label, you will need to divide the amount of each nutrient on the label. Using the salad dressing example, if you plan to eat only 7.5 mL (½ Tbsp) rather than the 15 mL (1 Tbsp) serving shown on the label, then you would need to divide the amount of each nutrient by two, because you are eating only half of the amount shown on the label.
The following example further illustrates how to calculate your intake of a single nutrient from your serving portion of a food.

The label on your favourite brand of granola says that there are 20 grams of sugar in a 125 mL (½ cup) serving. 

You love granola and sometimes eat 375 mL (1 ½ cups) for breakfast.  You want to know how much sugar you actually eat when you have this larger serving size.
The question is:  If there are 20 grams of sugar in 125 mL of granola, how many grams of sugar are there in a 375 mL serving?
The basic equation is this:
[Basic nutrient equation]
To answer the question, you need to do two calculations:
First, multiply the numbers that are “across” from each other (cross multiply):
20 grams of sugar X 375 mL of granola = 7500
Second, divide this answer (7500) by the remaining number (125 mL). This gives you a final value of 60.
This means that there are 60 grams of sugar in 375 mL of your favourite granola!
Nutrition Claims
In addition to providing nutrition information and a list of ingredients, some labels contain nutrition claims.  A nutrition claim is a way of linking the nutrients or ingredients found in a food with a health benefit.
Keep in mind that the use of nutrition claims is optional. Many highly nutritious packaged foods do not show claims on the label. Similarly, foods that are exempt from our labelling regulations – such as fresh fruits and vegetables – have long been linked to better health, yet are not always packaged in ways that permit nutrition claims.
For these reasons, do not rely solely on nutrition claims on labels when making decisions around which foods to purchase.  Instead, consider the recommendations of Eating Well with Canada’s Food Guide, as well as your budget.  Using this wider approach will help to better guide you towards healthy food choices.