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History/Origin of cabinet system

History/Origin of cabinet system

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TO KNOW ABOUT THE HISTORY/ORIGIN OF THE CABINET SYSTEM

Historically, cabinets began as smaller sub-groups of the English Privy Council(Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, usually known simply as the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign in the United Kingdom ) The term comes from the name for a relatively small and private room used as a study or retreat. Phrases such as "cabinet counsel," meaning advice given in private to the monarch, occur from the late 16th century, and, given the non-standardized spelling of the day, it is often hard to distinguish whether "council" or "counsel" is meant.

Charles I  ,began a formal "Cabinet Council" from his accession in 1625, as his Privy Council, or "private council", was evidently not private enough and the first recorded use of "cabinet" by itself for such a body comes from 1644, and is again hostile and associates the term with dubious (doubting) foreign practices.

Since the reign of King George I the Cabinet has been the principal executive group of British government. Both he and George II made use of the system, as both were non-native English speakers, unfamiliar with British politics, and thus relied heavily on selected groups of advisers. The term "minister" came into being since the royal officers "ministered" to the sovereign. The name and institution have been adopted by most English-speaking countries, and the Council of Ministers or similar bodies of other countries are often informally referred to as cabinets.

The modern Cabinet system was set up by Prime Minister David Lloyd George during his premiership, 1916–1922, with a Cabinet Office and Secretariat, committee structures, unpublished minutes (also known as protocols or, informally, notes) and a clearer relationship with departmental Cabinet ministers. (The formal procedures, practice and proceedings of the Cabinet remain largely unpublished, if not secret.)

This development grew out of the exigencies of the First World War where faster and better co-ordinated decisions across Government were seen as a crucial part of the war effort. Decisions on mass conscription, co-ordination worldwide with other governments across international theatres, and armament production tied into a general war strategy that could be developed and overseen from an inner "War Cabinet”  The country went through successive crises after the war: the 1922–1926 General Strike” the Great Depression of 1929–32; the rise of Bolshevism after 1917 and Fascism after 1922; the Spanish Civil War 1936 onwards; the invasion of Abyssinia 1936; the League of Nations Crisis which followed; and the re-armament and resurgence of Germany from 1933, leading into another World War ll these demanded a highly organized and centralized Government centred on the Cabinet.

This centralisation inevitably enhanced the power of the Prime Minister, who moved from being the primus inter pares (first among peers) of the Asquith Cabinets (then liberal Prime minister of United kingdom )of 1906 onwards, with a glittering set of huge individual talents leading powerful departments, to the dominating figures of David Lloyd George, Stanley Baldwin, and Winston Churchill.

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