This tutorial discusses how iconography can be used as a tool in art historical analysis.
Image of Buddha in Sarnath Museum (Dhammajak Mutra), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Buddha_in_Sarnath_Museum_(Dhammajak_Mutra).jpg; Image of St Christopher, Stained Glass Window at York Minster, Public Domain, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:York_York_minster_windows_015.JPG; Image of the Statue of Liberty, Frederic Bartholdi, Public Domain, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Statue_of_Liberty_7.jpg
A type of visual symbolism. Christian iconography for instance, might make references to the biblical story of the nativity.
When an object in a painting represents something else. In Baroque paintings, a woman holding a mirror often symbolizes vanity.
A figure of speech in which a word or concept stands for or represents another concept.
A form of visual symbolism in which a human figure represents an abstract concept, like justice.