Purpose is the intended goal or value of a text, and the audience is the reader of the text, which can be intended (targeted by the author) or unintended (not specifically targeted by the author).
Thus, assessing, identifying, and directing your writing towards the purpose and audience is an essential task. To figure out what the purpose and audience of a text is, look for these clues:
Doing an analysis of these elements within someone else’s writing helps you better deploy those same tools in your own writing and provides you with useful examples of effective ways to target your intended audience and fulfill your intended purpose.
The content of a text is just what the author has chosen as the subject and what the author telling you about that subject, which is closely tied to the purpose.
Sometimes, authors say exactly what their purpose is. But even when the author doesn’t say it outright, there are other ways you can identify the purpose. Look for the kinds of details, examples, explanations, descriptions, and arguments the author chooses.
To find the audience, assess the overall subject matter and also the way the author addresses it in order to make guesses about the intended readers.
There are four main modes of writing:
In any piece of writing, you’re bound to see descriptive, informative, and argumentative statements.
But because each mode has its perfect purpose, looking for which modes are used most commonly in any text will likely lead you in the general direction of the purpose, even though the purpose will be narrower than the mode itself.
1c. Word Choice
The words you choose, including both the vocabulary level you select and the connotations and denotations of your words, are related to your audience and purpose.
Vocabulary level can tell you a lot about the intended audience, such as the audience’s level of education or age range. Additionally, the tone struck by the connotations and denotations of the words gives you clues about how the reader is meant to feel.
1d. Level of Formality
How formal or informal a text is depends on its audience, and is revealed in:
Academic and professional writing tends to be more formal. Conversely, personal writing is usually informal.
Tone is a writer’s attitude towards the subject as conveyed through a piece of writing.
Looking to the tone that the author affects can tell you what that author’s attitude about the subject is, which can in turn clue you in to the overall purpose and how the author wants the audience to feel about that subject.
Now that you know about the factors that determine purpose and audience, you can practice identifying purpose and audience in a given text.
Consider the following short piece of writing:
What is the content of this text? It’s an ad for hot sauce, so you can discern a lot about the purpose by examining the content and assessing its mode. Thinking about how advertisements work and the kinds of argumentative statements you see here, it’s pretty clear that the purpose is to get you to buy, buy, buy.
Who is the audience that this hot sauce ad seems to expect? You can determine this through the assumptions the text is making about the reader. The language is very informal. Just look at that slang and the overall simplicity of these sentences:
You can see the ad using language that connotes hipness and youth, which means that the intended audience might care about social status and be up to date on current slang. Thus, this hot sauce ad is likely for teenagers.
This piece has a totally different tone:
The tone is markedly more formal, even though this is clearly correspondence. Because this is an email or letter for an academic setting sent from a student to a professor, it is more formal than other kinds of emails, and the tone is pretty neutral.
The direct intent is to inform the professor about the student's absence and that the student will visit office hours. But the underlying purpose seems to be to show the professor how responsible the student is. See how the student emphasizes the steps she took to ameliorate any negative consequences of missing class:
Now you can bring all of these tools to bear on a more substantive text and assess what purpose and audience you think it’s meant to serve.
Source: This work is adapted from Sophia author Martina Shabram.
A writer's attitude toward the subject as conveyed through a piece of writing.