A Review -
The Industrial Revolutions:
The term 'industrial revolution' was used to describe the period by the 1830s, but modern historians increasingly call this period the 'first industrial revolution', characterised by developments in textiles, iron and steam led by Britain, to differentiate it from a 'second' revolution of the 1850s onwards, characterised by steel, electrics and automobiles led by the US and Germany.
What Changed – Industrially and Economically:
The invention of steam power, which was used to power factories and transport and allowed for deeper mining.
Improvement of iron making techniques allowing for vastly higher production levels.
The textile industry was transformed by new machines – such as the Spinning Jenny - and factories, again allowing for much higher production at a lower cost.
Better machine tools allowed for more and better machines.
Developments in metallurgy and chemical production.
Creation of new and quicker transport networks thanks to first canals and then railways.
What Changed – Socially and Culturally:
Rapid urbanisation leading to dense, cramped housing and living conditions.
New city and factory cultures affecting family and peer groups.
Debates and laws regarding child labour, public health and working conditions.
Anti-technology groups such as the Luddites.