+
4 Tutorials that teach Improving Memory: Encoding Strategies
Take your pick:
Improving Memory:  Encoding Strategies

Improving Memory: Encoding Strategies

Rating:
Rating
(0)
Description:

This lesson will identify and describe encoding strategies, such as the use of mnemonics and the keyword method in memory and learning. This lesson will explore the use of mnemonics and the keyword method in memory and learning

(more)
See More
Try a College Course Free

Sophia’s self-paced online courses are a great way to save time and money as you earn credits eligible for transfer to over 2,000 colleges and universities.*

Begin Free Trial
No credit card required

25 Sophia partners guarantee credit transfer.

221 Institutions have accepted or given pre-approval for credit transfer.

* The American Council on Education's College Credit Recommendation Service (ACE Credit®) has evaluated and recommended college credit for 20 of Sophia’s online courses. More than 2,000 colleges and universities consider ACE CREDIT recommendations in determining the applicability to their course and degree programs.

Tutorial

What's Covered

This lesson is going to focus on remembering information better by looking at:

  1. Memory Strategies
  2. Strategies for Larger Amounts of Information

1. Memory Strategies

There are certain ways that a person can actually improve memory and make it easier to remember information. It is possible to improve memory at all three stages: encoding, storage, and retrieval. Improving each of these in some way could help with remembering and recalling information.

Repetition and rehearsal are two basic kinds of ways that memories can be coded into long term memory and ensure that they're not forgotten. The more times a person hears or says something, the more likely it is that it will stick.

Term to Know

  • Rehearsal
  • Repeating information to oneself, which allows one to retain information longer in the short-term memory.

Using elaborative processing, in which you connect new ideas to old ones, makes connections to the memory stronger and provides better retention over all. One way to elaborately process information is through the organization of that information. Another way to phrase it is to put each piece of information into a meaningful group. Information that is related to each other is more likely to stick together as a whole within our memories.

ExampleGrouping words that are similar to each, like colors, other to memorize them.

Term to Know

  • Organization
  • Placing information into meaningful groups.

Another strategy is selection. This is taking important information to remember and boiling it down it's a smaller more digestible parts. This can help with retention.

ExampleSummarizing information. Do not memorize verbatim; just remember important ideas.

Term to Know

  • Selection
  • Recognizing important information to remember and changing it into smaller, more digestible parts.

2. Strategies for Larger Amounts of Information

These next strategies apply to when we're learning large amounts of information. There are several different approaches that we can use to improve the learning and the retention of those memories regarding that information.

When you're learning a whole or large selection of information, like a speech or a poem, it's better to learn this selection as a whole vs. part learning. The reason why is because a person remembers larger more meaningful pieces easier than shorter or less meaningful pieces. An individual can also understand things as a whole better because they can understand how each piece fits together.

Term to Know

  • Whole vs. Part Learning
  • Remembering larger, more meaningful pieces as a whole, which is easier than shorter, less meaningful pieces.

Think About It

Say you are learning a list of information with things that aren't necessarily as related. How do you remember something like that?

You're more likely to remember the first and the last items within that list. This is something called the serial position effect. It's useful to keep that in mind and pay more attention to the things that are in the middle of that list because you're more likely to forget those things.

Term to Know

  • Serial Position Effect
  • When learning a list of information, a person is more likely to remember the first and last items on the list.

When learning any kind of information, a person should continue to study things after they are able to simply remember those things. This is called over-learning. This ensures through practice that you're better able to consolidate those memories within your mind. You'll be more likely to remember them for a longer period of time afterwards.

Term to Know

  • Over-Learning
  • When learning information, a person continues to study after he or she is able to simply remember it.

Keep in mind, this is different from just simply learning until you feel like it's sufficient. Given a different kind of situation or different kinds of environmental concerns, you might be more likely to forget that information.

The use of and aids in retrieving information can also be helpful in remembering that information better for later use. Cues are environmental stimuli that are present when a person learns about that information in the first place. When information is encoded into the memory with a cue, it will help the person to remember or retrieve that information later on.

ExampleIf you visualize the room that you're going to be taking a test in while you're studying; you're going to be able to better recall or retrieve that information later when you're actually inside of that room.

Term to Know

  • Cues
  • Environmental stimuli present when a person learns the information that help a person to remember, or retrieve, information later.

Another tactic you can use is mnemonics. Mnemonics are any kinds of systems or techniques that help people to remember and recall information later on. You've probably heard of lots of different types of mnemonics.

ExampleRhymes used to remember information like 30 days hath September, April, June, and November...

Term to Know

  • Mnemonics
  • Different systems or techniques that help people to remember and recall information. (example ROYGBIV)

One last tactic to better remember is the keyword method. This is a way in which you use familiar words and images to remember new words or information.

ExampleWhen you're learning a foreign language, you might make connections between the way the word sounds and associate that with a visualization linked to that sound of something familiar.

Term to Know

  • Keyword Method
  • When a person uses familiar words or images to remember new words or information.

  • Summary

There are several things you can do to remember information better. like repetition and rehearsal, organization, and selection all help to remember bits of information. There are as well. Keep in mind it is better to memorize the whole vs. the part. Also, if you are remember a list, you will naturally remember the first and last items better so focus on remembering the middle.  Over-learning, using environmental cues, mnemonics, and keyword method can all help as well.   

Keep up the learning and have a great day!

Source: This work is adapted from Sophia author Erick Taggart.

TERMS TO KNOW
  • Rehearsal

    Repeating information to oneself, which allows one to retain information longer in the short-term memory.

  • Organization

    Placing information into meaningful groups.

  • Selection

    Recognizing important information to remember and changing it into smaller, more digestible parts.

  • Whole versus Part Learning

    Remembering larger, more meaningful pieces as a whole, which is easier than shorter, less meaningful pieces.

  • Serial Position Effect

    When learning a list of information, a person is more likely to remember the first and last items on the list.

  • Over-Learning

    When learning information, a person continues to study after he or she is able to simply remember it.

  • Cues

    Environmental stimuli present when a person learns the information that help a person to remember, or retrieve, information later.

  • Mnemonics

    Different systems or techniques that help people to remember and recall information. (example ROYGBIV)

  • Keyword Method

    When a person uses familiar words or images to remember new words or information.