This lesson will cover the body’s second line of defense by looking at
Innate immunity is the body's second line of defense, after physical barriers. It involves very general responses meaning that the cells working in innate immunity are not specialized. They will attack any type of pathogen regardless of what it is and pathogens are identified by our body by an antigen.When a pathogen has gotten past the physical barriers, macrophages will be the first on the scene and will engulf those foreign cells.
Innate immunity is carried out by white blood cells and proteins. It includes processes such as:
The proteins involved with innate immunity are part of the complement system. This set of proteins in the body that will roam around unactivated and once they encounter a pathogen, they will become active. By becoming active, they trigger additional complement proteins which then trigger certain processes.
The complement system triggers several process to occur:
Generally a fever of around 100 degrees Fahrenheit is ideal. This temperature inhibits those pathogens but is not causing any tissue damage.If a person's fever gets too high it can damage tissue. Also, enzymes in our body do not function properly, and it can lead to death.
If these process do not work, the next step is for adaptive immunity to take over.
If a pathogen gets past our body’s physical barriers, which is our first line of defense, our innate immunity will kick in. This involves white blood cells which will try to engulf the invader. Certain proteins in our body are part of the complement system. They activate when they come in contact with a pathogen, and cause several processes to occur including phagocytosis, or inflammation, and fever will generally be able to rid the body of most types of pathogens. If a pathogen will persists, adaptive immunity will then need to take over.
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Source: Source: THIS WORK IS ADAPTED FROM SOPHIA AUTHOR AMANDA SODERLIND
A unique marker found on the surface of cells that have the potential to stimulate an immune response; antigens are basically the identity marker of cells for the immune system to see.
A group of normally inactive proteins in the blood that are activated by antibodies during an infection; complement proteins join together to form a membrane attack complex that pierces cell membranes, causing damage to the pathogens that are invading us.
A chemical secreted by mast cells and basophils that promotes inflammation by causing capillaries to become more permeable.
Also known as non-specific immunity, innate immunity consists of general physiologic responses (fever, inflammation, etc.) that can affect the entire body.