The large intestine is the part of the digestive system whose role is to absorb water, then eliminate solid waste.
Recall that food is converted into chyme in the stomach--going from solid to a soupy mix. As food moves from the small intestine into the large intestine, much of the water that was added to the solid food to make more easily digested must be reabsorbed. Any undigested materials that remain within the large intestine will be removed as waste, i.e., fecal matter.
The ileum of the small intestine is the part where the small intestine connects with the large intestine. Also, at the bottom of the large intestine near where it meets the small intestine, there is a little appendage protruding out known as the appendix.
The appendix is a part of the large intestine that stores B and T cells within lymph nodules. Its purpose is to attack and kill any parasites that are in the food at this point as it reaches this part of the large intestine.
The large intestine is broken down into two sections, the colon, and the rectum.
The colon is broken down into three subsections. The first subsection is called the ascending colon because it's going up or ascending upwards. The next part is called the transverse colon, because transverse means across. The third part is the descending colon, which is the part of the colon that is going down.
After these three structures, you'll find the rectum and the anus, where waste is stored and removed.
As food moves through the small intestine, it moves toward the ascending colon. Muscle contractions stimulated by hormones will help to move the material through the large intestine. Water and any remaining minerals will be absorbed until finally, you get down towards the rectum, where you have waste build up.
Waste is secreted through the anus and is nothing more than unabsorbed water, undigested matter, and bacteria that the body can't use.
Source: THIS WORK IS ADAPTED FROM SOPHIA AUTHOR AMANDA SODERLIND