This tutorial begins with the various photosynthetic pigments of the leaf. It then explores how the pigments capture photons of light energy and transfer them to the Photosytems in the thylakoid membrane.
Source: M. O'Mahony, open source figures.
Student note template for the first part of this lesson on Photosynthetic Pigments and the capture of light.
A word document of this is saved in Ms O's notes on First Class as well.
Source: M. O'Mahony and Open Source figures
This screen capture looks at the electron transport chain of the chloroplast and the role that photons of light, the two Photosystems and water play in it.
Comparison is made between the Mitochondrial ETC - which should be kept in the back of the watcher's mind during this screen capture.
Source: M. O'Mahony, Koning, Ross E. 1994. Light Reactions. Plant Physiology Information Website. http://plantphys.info/plant_physiology/lightrxn.shtml. (11-13-2014) (used with permission)
This Student Notes Template is for the lesson on the Light Dependent Reactions - specifically the electron transport chain of the Chloroplast.
Source: M. O'Mahony
Go to LabBench at The Biology Place Classic Edition
Lab 4 Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis contains 2 excellent virtual labs.
I. Chromatography separates pigments using paper chromatography.
II. Photosynthesis explores the activity of the Light Independent Reaction using DPIP. DPIP is a chemical that changes colour when it accepts electrons.
Source: The Biology Place, Classic Edition
BioCoach, another section of The Biology Place, Classic Edition from Pearson Education has an excellent interactive tutorial on photosynthesis.
It can be found at: http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/biocoach/photosynth/intro.html
Source: The Biology Place, Classic Edition
Photosynthesis: The Light (Independent) Reactions http://vcell.ndsu.nodak.edu/animations/photosynthesis/index.htm
Photosystem II: http://vcell.ndsu.nodak.edu/animations/photosystemII/index.htm
Source: National Science Foundation, US Dept of Education
This is a nice video from It begins with the Properties of Light, Structure of the Chloroplast, Light Independent Reactions. I will be reposting this in the next Tutorial (The Light Independent Reactions) for you to watch the segment on the Calvin Cycle.
http://www.stolaf.edu/people/giannini/flashanimat/metabolism/photosynthesis.swf Nice animation of non-cyclic photophosphorylation.
http://highered.mheducation.com/olc/dl/120072/bio13.swf A simpler animation focussing just on the Electron Transport Chain in the Chloroplast.
Source: McGraw Hill; stolaf.edu
Photosystem II was the "Molecule of the Month" in November 2004.
Check out their clear and well-written explanation and awesome figures at:
Photosystem I was the "Molecule of the Month" in October 2001!
Source: doi: 10.2210/rcsb_pdb/mom_2004_11 (PDF Version, ePub Version )
Cytochrom bc1 was added to the PDB in May 2011.
This protein is found in both the mitochondrial and photosynthetic electron transport chains.
Check it out at: http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/101/motm.do?momID=137
AND: This article confirms that while 2 electrons move 2 protons move through proton pumps!
Source: doi: 10.2210/rcsb_pdb/mom_2011_5
Recent (July 2014) research at the University of Michigan was summarized in a Science Daily article. The abstract reads:
""Biophysics researchers have used short pulses of light to peer into the mechanics of photosynthesis and illuminate the role that molecule vibrations play in the energy conversion process that powers life on our planet."
Check out this summary. If you want more details you can go to the published article:
Franklin D. Fuller, Jie Pan, Andrius Gelzinis, Vytautas Butkus, S. Seckin Senlik, et al. Vibronic coherence in oxygenic photosynthesis. Nature Chemistry, 13 July 2014 DOI: 10.1038/nchem.2005
Source: University of Michigan. (2014, July 13). Deep within spinach leaves, vibrations enhance efficiency of photosynthesis. ScienceDaily. Retrieved November 12, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/07/140713155502.htm
9 Jan 2014 from research conducted at University College, London
Light-gathering macromolecules in plant cells transfer energy by taking advantage of molecular vibrations whose physical descriptions have no equivalents in classical physics, according to the first unambiguous theoretical evidence of quantum effects in photosynthesis.
Research article can be found at:
Edward J. O’Reilly, Alexandra Olaya-Castro. Non-classicality of the molecular vibrations assisting exciton energy transfer at room temperature. Nature Communications, 2014; 5 DOI: 10.1038/ncomms4012
Source: University College London. "Quantum mechanics explains efficiency of photosynthesis." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 9 January 2014. .
A reminder that you need an account on Spongelab to access the resources. It is free to set up an account.
Search: Photosynthesis then look under "Games and Simulations".