Source: Glove, Clker, http://bit.ly/1CVSonk; Stick Figure, Clker, http://bit.ly/1JoIB83; Twitter, Pixabay, http://bit.ly/1eabiwn; Thumb, Pixabay, http://bit.ly/1JrvbrC; A+, Pixabay, http://bit.ly/1SwhDje; Social Media, Pixabay, http://bit.ly/1OqhT2P; Teamwork, Pixabay, http://bit.ly/1CKoW5e; Obstacle, Pixabay, http://bit.ly/1IdgDzm; Outside The Box, Pixabay, http://bit.ly/1gJhnBU; Light Bulb, Pixabay, http://bit.ly/1Dpza5Q
Hello there, and welcome. In this lesson we'll look at the work of Robert Marzano. And analyze the role that research based instructional practices has on collaborative professional development plans. This is great information to know whether you're a developer of PD, or just a participant. So let's get started.
I work with an administrator who often uses the phrase "we're not making widgets," whenever anyone begins to lose focus on what it is we're doing every day. And that is to improve instructional practices in order to benefit students, and increase their achievement, whether academic, social, or emotional. When we're establishing collaborative professional growth and development plans, they should be the primary focus. Using Marzano's nine high yield instructional strategies can help collaborative teams of teachers develop and maintain a focus on areas of need when working on collaborative professional development and growth. Let's take a look at the nine.
Identifying similarities and differences. The first strategy is aimed at helping students to comprehend complicated problems. One way to do this is by evaluating those problems with methods such as graphic organizers, charts, and Venn diagrams that can compare and classify items. Another effective method is to use metaphors and analogies.
The second strategy is summarizing and note taking. Which encourages efficient analysis by prioritizing key ideas. This can be supported with clear guidelines, and asking students to summarize information. Facilitators of learning can supply a note taking structure or outline for learners.
The third strategy is to reinforce effort and provide recognition. When the connection between hard work and high performance is made, we become empowered learners. It's called having a growth mindset. We can support this by promoting the importance of effort and flexibility. Furthermore, the process is even more effective if recognition is dependent upon certain levels of achievement. We are seeing this happen with gamification, and making its way into the classroom. I was actually at a workshop in which the presenter used this strategy. He had us use Poll everywhere to answer questions along the way, and gave points to respondents who got them right. It was all in fun of course. But I will tell you that the energy and engagement in the room was off the charts. There are specific ways to support this strategy. For example, tailoring rewards and incentives to the individual. And highlighting examples of learners who persevere despite obstacles. One way to do this is through discuss, question, praise. When facing obstacles model how to pause and discuss the issue. Then, through a series of questions offer specific suggestions that can lead to improvement.
Next, is homework and practice. There are certainly a place for extended learning and practice outside the classroom. With the advent of flipped and blended learning, and the knowledge that one-size does not fit all, this may look different than it did years ago. Some of today's effective approaches include differentiated homework assignments, and practice to meet each student's independent level. Also, a rule of thumb that has been supported by research is giving 10 minutes of homework per grade per night. So if you're a fourth grader, 40 minutes. If you're a fifth grader, 50 minutes. And so on.
Next, we come to nonlinguistic representations. At any age, the use of symbols to demonstrate relationships along with words and visual representation is considered best practice. Models help us to make and show connections. We often see this in math, but it's certainly the case in other areas as well. For instance, many, if not most of our interactions with technology are all icon based. We have been conditioned to just look for symbols or colors when looking for items on our devices. Just take a look at this image for example, how many symbols do you recognize?
Number six is cooperative learning. Social learning theory tells us that best practice includes time to teach students the expectations of working together in groups, and becoming comfortable with their role. This can be accomplished in multiple ways. One way is to establish the groups based upon mutually agreed upon outcomes or objectives. Another option is to create more heterogeneous groupings of members based on strengths and needs. This is happening at professional development sessions as well. At ed camps and unconferences the phrase "vote with your feet" is being uttered more and more. Which means, if the session you are in isn't meeting your needs, get up, and go to another one.
As adults, one would hope that we are able to handle this type of learning autonomy. However, children do need the direct instruction and coaching to develop these positive social skills. Whether you're an adult or young learner, it's important to begin by setting objectives. Furthermore, as you're learning progresses, receiving feedback from your instructor, or even peers, will help to keep you on track. An effective facilitator of learning will embed and communicate both these practices in planning. This is a good time to remind you that praise is not feedback. Feedback is clear and actionable, and helps students move toward meeting the established criteria of the goal or objective. If you're unclear on this I would suggest you explore the topic deeper.
One way to do this can be by setting a whole group goal for a particular unit. But then allow students to customize the goal based on their own interests. Of course, don't forget to celebrate the attainment of the goal.
The eighth strategy is called generating and testing hypothesis. There's no better evidence when presenting or promoting an initiative than data gathered from objective research methods of inquiry. This school of thought can begin at the elementary level, when teachers create learning opportunities that require students to make predictions, and use systematic strategies to prove or disapprove their hypothesis. It's not just science either. You see it in reading when students are asked to cite their evidence from the text as well.
And the ninth and final strategy is called questions, queues, and advanced organizers. This includes tapping into students' prior knowledge, and making connections to what they've already learned. As a teacher, the language you choose, the types of questions you ask, and the amount of wait time you provide, are all contributing factors that will help students build a toolbox of organizers for them to access whenever they need it. I found that the best way to do this is to invite a colleague into your room, and literally write down and record every question you ask for an entire period. After reviewing that list, you will look at the way you ask questions in a completely different way.
So to recap, this lesson was all about Robert Marzano's nine high yield instructional strategies that are listed here. And now for today's food for thought. Review this lesson, and think about how each strategy relates to you as a facilitator and a receiver of learning. And of course you can dive a little deeper, and learn how to apply this information by checking out the additional resources section associated with this video. Here you'll find links targeted toward helping you discover more ways to apply the course material. Thanks so much for watching. We'll see you next time.
(00:18-00:55) Instructional Strategies Model
(00:56-01:34) Strategies 1 & 2
(01:35-03:13) Strategies 3 & 4
(03:14-04:31) Strategies 5 & 6
(04:32-05:43) Strategies 7 & 8
(05:44-06:23) Strategy 9
(06:24-07:05) Summary/Food For Thought
Marzano’s (Nine) High-Yield Instructional Strategies
This PowerPoint from Palm Beach Schools provides a clear overview of Marzano's High-Yield Strategies with practical classroom examples.
Setting the Record STRAIGHT on “High-Yield” Strategies
In this article, Robert Marzano clarifies some common misconceptions about his work and theories.