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Mental Disorders Overview

Mental Disorders Overview

Author: Sophia Tutorial
Description:

Identify the major classifications of mental disorders.

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Tutorial
what's covered
This lesson will cover the major classifications of mental disorders. Our discussion breaks down as follows:

  1. DSM-5
  2. DSM-5 Chapters
    1. Adjustment Disorder
    2. Personality Disorders


1. DSM-5

The Fifth Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, or DSM-5, is a method that specifically concerns psychology in the United States.

This manual is developed by the American Psychiatric Association (APA). The manual was originally released in 1952 in its first form, DSM-I. The DSM-IV was released in 1994. A revised edition was released in 2000, the DSM-IV-TR. The American Psychiatric Association’s latest edition is the DSM-5, which was released and adopted for use in May of 2013.

The DSM-5 is referred to as a non-theoretical type of classification, meaning that it does not subscribe to a specific theory. Instead, the DSM-5 uses a clinically-based approach based on prior research on individuals with a variety of mental and intellectual disorders. In other words, in the case of the DSM-5, prior research informs the current diagnosis.

The DSM-5 describes symptoms and statistics based on the prevalence of various types of mental disorders. As such, it is informed by the clinical research of other professionals. So it is quite probable that the issues the DSM-5 covers may not be as prevalent in society as a whole.

There are 290 mental disorders discussed within the DSM-5, and they are categorically organized in 20 chapters. (i.e., anxiety disorders are grouped together, as are depressive disorders, etc.).

big idea
While reviewing this information, keep in mind that this course is just an overview. As you read about disorders, it can be very tempting to diagnose yourself or others, but avoid doing that. If you are concerned that you have a mental health problem, please seek a mental health professional's advice.


2. DSM-5 Chapters

The chapters in the DSM-5 include:

  • Neurodevelopmental Disorders
  • Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders
  • Bipolar and Related Disorders
  • Depressive Disorders
  • Anxiety Disorders
  • Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders
  • Trauma-and Stressor-Related Disorders
  • Dissociative Disorders
  • Somatic Symptom Disorders
  • Feeding and Eating Disorders
  • Elimination Disorders
  • Sleep-Wake Disorders
  • Sexual Dysfunctions
  • Gender Dysphoria
  • Disruptive, Impulse Control and Conduct Disorders
  • Substance Use and Addictive Disorders
  • Neurocognitive Disorders
  • Personality Disorders
  • Paraphilic Disorders
  • Other Mental Disorders

2a. Adjustment Disorder
One type of disorder included under trauma- and stressor-related disorders chapter is adjustment disorder. This is when a person has trouble coping with ordinary stresses within their lives. Significant life events like job loss might result in issues like depression, anxiety, or trouble sleeping. This is the basic beginning of a clinical disorder, which is why it is listed here.

term to know

Adjustment Disorder
A mental disorder where a person has trouble coping with ordinary stress, or cannot adjust, which results in emotional/behavioral problems

2b. Personality Disorders

Another chapter covers personality disorders, which are maladaptive, long-lasting patterns of thinking. They do not necessarily develop in a short period of time, but they occur for a significant amount of time over a person's life.

Personality disorders include:

  • Paranoid personality disorder: When a person is extremely distrustful and has feelings of being lied to. They are very secretive people, in an extreme sense, so it affects their day-to-day life.
  • Antisocial personality disorder: When a person acts very cruelly or impulsively towards other people. They don't have any regret or feelings of empathy. This is very similar to psychopathy or sociopathy, but they are a bit different.
  • Narcissistic personality disorder: When a person has extreme feelings of self-centeredness. They think that their ideas are the absolute best. Thinking of others is an extension of the person's self. In other words, in their minds, everybody else is basically trying to serve that one person.
terms to know
Personality Disorders
Maladaptive, long-lasting patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
A personality disorder marked by long-term feelings of self-centeredness, thinking ideas are best, and thinking of others as an extension of self


summary
Today's lesson has been a brief overview of mental disorders. The DSM-IV is the manual for defining what a mental disorder is, how it should be classified, and how to treat it. It contains around 290 mental disorders and is organized along 20 chapters.

Within the chapters, you will find clinical disorders and mental disorders, such as adjustment disorders. Other chapters contain personality disorders, mental retardation, and developmental disorders that result from genetic or environmental factors. Personality disorders are maladaptive and long-term.

Good luck!

Source: This work is adapted from Sophia author Erick Taggart.

Terms to Know
Adjustment Disorder

A mental disorder where a person has trouble coping with ordinary stress, or cannot adjust, which results in emotional/behavioral problems.

Narcissistic Personality Disorder

A personality disorder marked by long-term feelings of self-centeredness, thinking ideas are best, and thinking of others as an extension of self.

Personality Disorders

Maladaptive, long-lasting patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving.