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Middle Ages:  Islam

Middle Ages: Islam

Author: Jessica Shoja
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Tutorial

Islam History and Teachings Video

Approx. 5 min video

Source: Discovery Education

Islam PowerPoint

What are the teachings of Islam?

Islam PowerPoint Text

Aim:  What are the teachings of Islam?

Do Now:  What do you know about Islam?  What do you know about Muslims?

Islam

An Arabic word meaning “to submit to god”
The founder of Islam is Muhammad
Muslims are the followers of Islam
Mosques are the Islamic places of worship

Muhammad

Born in Mecca around the year 570

Mecca—a holy city in western Saudi Arabia

A devoted father and husband
A merchant known for conducting honest business
Around 40 years old, he heard the voice of the angel Gabriel calling him to be a messenger of God
Devoted his life to spreading his faith (Islam)
Merchants dislike Muhammad’s teachings that there was one God, Allah
Muhammad and his followers left Mecca for Yathrib (later named Medina or “city of the prophet”)

The journey became known as the Hijra

The Medina community converted to Islam

They helped Muhammad fight against the Meccans in 630
Rededicated the Kaaba temple to Allah and it became the most holy place in Islam

Muhammad died in 632 but Islam continued to spread

The Quran

The sacred text of Islam written in Arabic

The final word of God as revealed to Muhammad
Ethical standards:  honesty, generosity, and social justice
Sets harsh penalties for crime
Final judgment day-each individual will stand before God to face either eternal punishment in hell or eternal bliss in paradise

The Five Pillars of Islam

Declaration of Faith (Shahadah)
Daily Prayer (Salat)
Alms for the Poor (Zakat)
Fast During Ramadan (Siyam)
Hajj

Jihad

Struggle in God’s service
Interpreted as a holy war to defend Islam and the Muslim community

Similar to the Christian crusades

"Religiously, jihad is the expending of utmost effort in upholding and defending justice," said Sheikh Jaafar Idris, of the Saudi Arabian Embassy. Idris explained that he recognizes two kinds of jihad because there are two kinds of violations of justice: jihad with words against false beliefs, and jihad with the sword against acts of injustice. "The first is the basic and continuous jihad," Idris said. "It was mentioned in the Qur'an very early in the history of Islam and at a time when Muslims were weak and even persecuted. God said to His Prophet, 'Do not obey the kafireen (those who reject the truth) but wage jihad with it (the Qur'an) against them. [25:52]'"

“People of the Book”

Jews, Christians, and Muslims worship the same God
Muslims believe the Quran teaches God’s final and complete revelation, while Hebrew scriptures and the Christian Bible contain portions of earlier revelations
Muslims consider Jews and Christians as “people of the book”—superior to polytheistic worshipers

Sharia

Islamic law that includes interpretation of the Quran, examples of behavior from Muhammad’s life, and Muslim traditions

Regulates moral conduct, family life, business practices, government, and other aspects of individual and community life
Applies religious principles to all legal situations

Men and Women

The Qu'ran states in 4:34, "Men are the protectors and maintainers of women, because Allah has made one of them to excel the other, and because they spend from their means. Therefore the righteous women are devoutly obedient and guard in the husband's absence what Allah orders them to guard."

Women

Islam extended rights and protection to women
Spiritually equal under Islam, men and women had different roles and rights
Controversial practice of veiling

Women’s lives vary according to region and class

“O Adam dwell with your wife in the Garden and enjoy as you wish but approach not this tree or you run into harm and transgression. Then Satan whispered to them in order to reveal to them their shame that was hidden from them and he said: ‘Your Lord only forbade you this tree lest you become angels or such beings as live forever.’ And he swore to them both that he was their sincere adviser. So by deceit he brought them to their fall: when they tasted the tree their shame became manifest to them and they began to sew together the leaves of the Garden over their bodies. And their Lord called unto them: ‘Did I not forbid you that tree and tell you that Satan was your avowed enemy?’ They said: ‘Our Lord we have wronged our own souls and if You forgive us not and bestow not upon us Your Mercy, we shall certainly be lost’.” [Noble Quran 7:19-23]

Muhammad

Muhammad
Prophet

A religious, political, and military leader from Mecca who unified Arabia into a single religious polity under Islam. -Wikipedia

Born: 570 AD, Mecca

Died: June 8, 632 AD, Medina

Full name: Muhammad Ibn `Abd Allāh Ibn `Abd al-Muttalib

Spouses: Maymuna bint al-Harith (m. 630 AD–632 AD), Maria al-Qibtiyya (m. 630 AD–632 AD), Umm Salama Hind bint Abi Umayya (m. 629 AD–632 AD), Safiyya bint Huyayy (m. 629 AD–632 AD), Rayhāna bint Zayd ibn ʿAmr (m. 629 AD–631 AD), Ramlah binte Abi-Sufyan (m. 628 AD–632 AD), Juwayriyya bint al-Harith (m. 628 AD–632 AD), Zaynab bint Jahsh (m. 627 AD–632 AD), Zaynab bint Khuzayma (m. 625 AD–627 AD), Hafsa bint Umar (m. 624 AD–632 AD), Sawda bint Zama (m. 619 AD–632 AD), Aisha bint Abu Bakr (m. 619 AD–632 AD), Khadija bint Khuwaylid (m. 595 AD–619 AD)

Children: Fatima bint Muhammad, Zainab bint Muhammad, Ruqayyah bint Muhammad, Umm Kulthum bint Muhammad, Ibrahim ibn Muhammad, Qasim ibn Muhammad, Abd-Allah ibn Muhammad

Religions of the World Islam Video

Approx. 27 minutes

Source: Discovery Education

Five Pillars of Islam

SHAHADAH. This Pillar is believing and saying the words. “There is no god except Allah, Muhammad is the messenger of Allah”.

SALAH. This Pillar is praying five times a day. There are set prayers which Muslims should say, and all Muslims should face Mecca in Arabia when praying, and should pray on a prayer mat. People should wash before they pray. There are fixed movements, which include kneeling with the forehead placed on the ground in front. This expresses the servant status of the human being in relation to Allah.

ZAKAH. Each year, Muslims are supposed to give a fixed proportion of their savings for endeavours such as helping the poor. In this way, they believe that their wealth is “made pure”

SAWM. Refraining from food and drink during the month of Ramadan during daylight hours.

HAJJ. This is making a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in your life, if it can be afforded.

Sample Sermon

Islam teachings video