This lesson will cover the role of Mitosis in the cell cycle by looking at:
Mitosis is a part of the cell cycle. The cell cycle describes events that happen from the time a cell is formed until it divides. Mitosis is a type of cell division that happens in somatic cells, all the cells in your body except for sex cells. This process produces new cells. Cells are constantly going through the cell cycle and producing new cells. As cells grow old and die, they need to be replaced by new ones.
Interphase is the first part of the cell cycle, but it's not considered to be a part of mitosis. Interphase is the part of the cycle where the cell is getting ready to divide but is not dividing yet. It is the longest phase of the cell cycle, and is where the cell spends most of its life.
There are three sub-phases to interphase:
Normally in interphase, chromosomes are not visible. Genetic information, or DNA, is found in the form of chromatin, which is like a thread-like ball of yarn that's found within the nucleus. As a cell is preparing to divide, that DNA will then condense into chromosomes which will be copied in preparation for division. Chromosomes are made of sister chromatids attached in the middle at a point called the centromere.
Mitosis actually includes four phases:
Cytokinesis follows mitosis, and is were two completely new individual cells exist. These two separate cells are diploid daughter cells. They are called diploid because the contain 46 chromosomes, the same number as the parent cell. They are also identical to the parent cell. At this point, the nuclear envelope has completely reformed, and the DNA will return to its thread-like form.
Mitosis the part of the cell cycle where a cell divides to reproduce. Interphase is the part of the cycle where a cell spends most of its life, and is preparing for mitosis. There are three phases to interphase. G1 is the phase where the cell is growing, S phase is where DNA is copied, and G2 is where the cell makes final preparations for mitosis. During interphase, chromosomes are normally not visible, but as the cell prepares to divide it will condense and become visible. Once duplicated sister chromatid are held together by a centromere. There are four phases of mitosis. Prophase is when the nuclear envelope breaks down and centrioles move to the poles. Metaphase is when the chromosomes start to line up in the middle of the cell and spindle fibers attach to the centromeres of the chromosomes. During Anaphase sister chromatids are separated and move to the poles. Finally, in telophase, the nuclear envelope will begin to reform around the chromosomes and the plasma membrane will pinch off. Cytokinesis follows mitosis, and is where two completely new daughter cells exist.
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Source: SOURCE: THIS WORK IS ADAPTED FROM SOPHIA AUTHOR AMANDA SODERLIND
The third phase of mitosis in which sister chromatids are separated and pulled by spindle fibers toward opposite poles of the cell.
Describes the events that occur from the time a cell is formed until it divides.
The point at which sister chromatids are attached to one another.
The pinching off of the plasma membrane to produce two new cells.
The end result of mitosis in which two diploid daughter cells are produced which are identical to the parent cell.
The name for cells produced by the process of mitosis.
Cells that contain two copies of each chromosome.
The portion of interphase in which a cell grows in size.
The portion of interphase in which a cell makes final preparations for cell division.
A phase of the cell cycle in which a cell carries out its normal functions; includes all parts of a cell’s life except for when the cell is dividing.
The second phase of mitosis in which chromosomes line up on the metaphase plate and are attached at the centromere to spindle fibers.
The first phase of mitosis in which chromosomes are condensed, the nuclear membrane breaks down and centrioles begin to move toward opposite poles.
The portion of interphase in which a cell’s DNA is copied.
A duplicate of an original chromosome produced during mitosis.
The final phase of mitosis in which the plasma membrane begins to pinch off and the nuclear membrane begins to reform. Chromosomes begin to return to their thread-like state.