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Welcome. I'm Trisha Fyfe, and in today's video lesson, I will explore the topic of models for reflection on coaching. As we learn about this topic, we will work towards one main learning objective, and in this video lesson, we'll use the following question to guide our learning.
What are models for teacher reflection that can be used for instructional coaching? Teacher reflection is something that is extremely important in the process of growth and development as a teacher. There are many different models to consider to guide your reflection. In the case of instructional coaching specifically, there are two models that we should think about as coach providing feedback to teacher, receiving feedback. These two models that we'll discuss in more detail throughout this lesson are Pappas' view on reflection and Hatton and Smith's view on reflection.
Guiding questions are used in Pappas' model for reflection. These guiding questions stem from Bloom's taxonomy, and they can be used on both sides of the coaching relationship, as coach or as teacher. They're intended to prompt more detailed and comprehensive feedback about instruction and practice.
In each level of Bloom's taxonomy, questions help guide us. Here are some examples. At the bottom, most basic level of knowledge of Bloom's taxonomy, we have remembering. And a question that we can use here is "What did I do?" What happened during instruction, or what happened during coaching? Here we are reflecting on the what.
Understanding, which is the next level of Bloom's taxonomy, would be what was important about it? Why was what occurred important? It's important to consider the why element here.
In applying, we could use the question, how could I use this again? We're going to use strategies from this lesson or observation in the future. Here, we reflect on replication. When will we repeat it again?
In analyzing, we could use the question, what patterns were present in what I did? Did my coach notice these patterns? Or why did I use those patterns? Here, we're reflecting on the structure.
In evaluating, we could use the questions, how well did I do? Where did I excel? Where do I need to improve? Here, we reflect on the proficiency.
And lastly, at the highest level of Bloom's taxonomy, we want to use the question, what should I do next? Are there particular steps I can take to enhance my instruction based on the areas that I need to improve upon? Here, we reflect on the next steps.
Let's look at Hatton and Smith's view on reflection now. This model revolves around the idea that while reflecting internally is important, written reflections are essential and much more powerful, in some cases. Hatton and Smith believe that written reflection is even more powerful than using what was observed in verbal communication, such as in a conference.
To do this successfully, four strategies are recommended. The first strategy is descriptive writing, and this is when we report events. It's used to start the process for reflection. It's a starting point. Here, it's important to reflect on the what.
Descriptive reflection is when we share reasons for our actions. This is based on personal judgment. Here we must reflect on the why something was done the way that it was.
Dialogic reflection is when we explore why we made these choices using discourse or dialogue with oneself. So here, it's important to reflect on the structure.
Critical reflection is when we give reasons for our decisions. While doing so, we should consider context-- broad, historical context and social and political context. Here, we reflect on structure in the context of the field-- not just in the classroom and school setting, but the big picture of education. Let's talk about what we learned today.
We looked at the question, what are models for teacher reflection that can be used for instructional coaching? In today's lesson, we dove into Pappas' view on reflection and Hatton and Smith's view on reflection. Guiding questions are used in Pappas' model for reflection. These guiding questions stem from Bloom's taxonomy and the levels within Bloom's taxonomy, and they can be used on both sides of the coaching relationship, as coach or as teacher.
Hatton and Smith believe that written reflection is even more powerful than using what was observed in verbal communication, such as a conference. They use four strategies-- descriptive writing, descriptive reflection, dialogic reflection, and critical reflection-- to use powerful written reflection that can be so helpful in professional development.
Now that you're more familiar with these concepts, let's reflect. Which of these two models for reflection on instructional coaching do you relate to the most? Who can you collaborate with to learn more about how to reflect on instructional coaching?
Thanks for joining me today in discussing the lesson Models for Reflection on Coaching. I hope you found value in this video lesson, and you're able to apply these ideas and resources to your own teaching and coaching. For more information on how to apply what you've learned in this video, please see the Additional Resources section that accompanies this video presentation. The Additional Resources section includes hyperlinks useful for applications of the course material, including a brief description of each resource.
(00:00- 00:22) Introduction/Objectives
(00:23- 00:52) Teacher Reflection Models
(00:53- 02:50) Pappas’ View on Reflection
(02:51- 04:22) Hatton and Smith’s View on Reflection
(04:23- 05:17) Recap
(05:18- 06:07) Reflection
Zachary Schools has a useful handbook on the process of debriefing and reflecting in the instructional coaching process.
Reflective Coaching for Professional Growth
This North Carolina Public Schools presentation reviews the reflective coaching purpose, process, and impact on teaching and learning.