Policy typically set by a central banking authority, whereby money supply access and the resulting cost or access to money (interest rate), is varied to assist in stabilizing economic activity.
Policy typically set by a central government authority whereby government spending is adjusted to stabilize economic activity.
Either monetary or fiscal policy that is enacted to stimulate economic growth (as measured by the GDP growth rate).
Either monetary or fiscal policy that is enacted to slow economic growth (as measured by the GDP growth rate).
The sum total impact of a policy action on the economy; the money multiplier is equal to the ratio of the reserve requirement, 1/rr, such that a given reserve requirement will result in an net multiple of the original increase equal to “ x the change in loanable funds.”
The graphical depiction of the inverse relationship between inflation and unemployment; intuitively, higher employment (lower unemployment) is consistent with a strong economy and demand, as demand increases beyond short-run supply capabilities or resource constraints, inflation begins to increase.
The situation where unemployment in high and inflation is high, contrary to the Phillips curve; stagflation occurs when policy actions fail to boost economic growth and the economy instead becomes stuck in a seeming impassable position.