Motivation is the justifications, consciously and subconsciously, for acting in a particular way to a situation.
EXAMPLEPerhaps you're going to school because you want to be educated in a particular field of study. That would be your motivation for that particular action.
Morale is the certainty of an individual or a group at a specific time, and morale can take on the form of motivation. If the morale of a group or individual is high, then they can be motivated to do a particular action exceedingly well.
Typically, an organization's objective is to achieve its goals in the most efficient manner possible. Employees need more than just the correct raw materials and equipment in order to get the job done. At work, they need morale. They need a reason to be motivated, a reason to do their job.
Motivation, morale, job satisfaction, and satisfying the needs of the employees are all interconnected in helping an organization achieve its organizational goals in an efficient manner.
Let's take a look at some different studies that relate to motivation and morale that were done in the early to mid-20th century.
2a. Classical Theory
The classical theory is the theory that employees are motivated solely by money, which was thought to be the case for a long time. This theory was introduced by a man named Frederick Taylor in 1911.
Mr. Taylor realized, though, that his classical theory wasn't always correct, and that employees and managers are sometimes motivated by something more than money. They could be motivated simply by doing a good job--that self-satisfaction achieved from doing a good job.
He varied the lighting levels. They raised it and found out that the workers performed better. Then, they lowered it, and they found out that the workers also performed better.
Well, what they found out was that the workers' performance had nothing to do with the lighting levels. The workers' performance was affected by people paying attention to them--that feeling of someone looking over their shoulder.
The motivational factors were things like achievement or recognition. Sometimes it was simply the satisfaction of doing the job itself, or the responsibility that goes along with doing that job, that motivated workers. Or, it could be the advancement or growth within the company that motivated the employer and increased employee satisfaction.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs takes the form of a five-level pyramid of needs, which range from physiological needs all the way up to something called self-actualization.
The five levels within the pyramid include the physiological needs, as mentioned before; security needs; social needs for love and belonging; a need for esteem or recognition; and finally, self-actualization at the top of the pyramid, once all of the needs below have been satisfied and a person can become self-actualized.
The Theory X model is a theory of motivation based on the assumption that workers are naturally lazy, will avoid work if they can, and inherently dislike work. As a result of this, management believes that workers need to be closely supervised. People who ascribe to Theory X are lazy, irresponsible, unproductive, and unambitious.
The Theory Y model is exactly the opposite--the theory that workers are naturally productive and self-motivated, and want to do a good job. In this theory, management assumes employees are ambitious and self-motivated and can exercise self-control. It is believed that employees enjoy their mental and physical work duties, so work to them is natural and will seek out and accept responsibilities for accomplishing objectives. People who ascribe to Theory Y are energetic, responsible, and ambitious.
Douglas McGregor postulated that managers tend to fall in either one of the two categories. They either ascribe to Theory X, that workers are lazy, or Theory Y, that workers are not lazy.
You can tell when someone is a good motivator of others because you'll notice a couple of things. One, that people around this particular person want to do their best when they're around them, doing the job that they have assigned. In addition, when motivating others, it is important to assess each person's "hot button," or what it is that makes them motivated. A good motivator will use that to get the best out of each employee.
Good employers are able to motivate many kinds of direct reports, teams, or project members. It doesn't matter what background they come from, or what type of worker they are--a good motivator can still motivate them regardless.
A good motivator invites input from each person and shares ownership and visibility with that person for the goals that they've set. A good motivator can help empower other people, and is someone that people really like working for; they can make others feel important.
Source: adapted from sophia instructor james howard