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Neo-Freudians: Jung

Neo-Freudians: Jung

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This lesson will examine Jung's theory of the unconscious and archetypes.

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Tutorial


What's Covered

This lesson is going to cover the contribution of Carl Jung to psychology by looking at:

  1. Jung's Theory of Personality
  2. Archetypes


1. Jung’s Theory of Personality

Carl Jung is a Neo-Freudian that was very influential in many areas of thought. His impact was not just to psychology but also art, literature, and philosophy. Jung was originally a student of Freud's that became a friend and confidante for him. Over time, he started to develop different ideas about unconsciousness.  

Particularly, he focused on dreams, symbols, and their role within the unconscious, as opposed to Freud's focus on these sort of urges and desires of the id. Jung said that the personality was composed of three parts just like Freud.  

Also like Freud, he stated that the ego is the central part of our personality and controls all of our conscious thoughts. Jung expanded on the idea of the ego by saying that a person's ego can either be:

  • Introverted- inwardly focused. People who could be shy, reserved, or distant.
  • Extroverted -outwardly focused. People who are generally very outgoing, sociable, and emotive

Terms to Know

  • Extroversion
  • Social individuals who find energy from being around others, often have a wide array of friends.
  • Introversion
  • Individuals who find energy from being alone, often have a few close friends.

This is a concept still used today, and it is very influential in personality psychology. On the other hand, Jung proposed two different aspects of what our unconscious is made of:

  • Personal unconscious- a collection of a person's individual experiences, memories, and feelings.
  • Collective unconscious- the collection of all the knowledge, experiences, imagery, and symbols that are shared by everybody as a human being.

2. Archetypes 

These universally understood and shared ideas that are stored in the collective unconscious are what Jung referred to as an archetypes. Archetypes are symbols of experiences and ideas that all human beings have. There are four major ones, although Jung said that there was really no limit to how many we could have.

Term to Know

  • Archetypes
  • Universal thought forms from our species' collective ancestry.  

 There are the four archetypes that are central to a person:

  • The self- this is the complete individual. It is the image that a person has of being the ideal version of themselves. This is when the personality is completely balanced between the conscious and the unconscious.
  •  The shadow-the dark side of the unconscious. This is the archetype that Freud was focused on, and refers to repressed desires, weaknesses, and ideas that are negative to a person.
  •  The anima (male) or animus (female)- the idealized image of the opposite sex, and is what allows us to relate to others that are different from us. It comes from experiences with the parent of the opposite sex first, and is further developed by others throughout a person’s life.

    ExampleA man would have an anima, an idealized form of a woman. This person’s anima would come mainly from their mother but is developed by other women in their life as well.

  •  The persona- is a person’s public self or the mask they wear. The self a person presents to other people can differ depending on the situation.

    ExampleThe persona a person presents with their parents from the persona shown to friends or strangers.


Summary

Carl Jung was a neo-Freudian who had an important impact on psychology, art, literature, and philosophy. Jung's theory of personality stated that it was made of three parts. Like Freud, Jung stated that he central part of personality is the ego. He expanded on the idea by saying the ego can be either introverted or extroverted. 

His ideas on the unconscious part of the mind were different as well. He believed it was made of the personal unconscious and the collective unconscious. Jung also purposed that the collective unconscious is made up of knowledge, experiences, imagery, and symbols that are shared by all human beings called. There are an unlimited number of possible archetypes, but there are four that are central to a person. These four are the self, the shadow, the anima/animus, and the persona.

Keep up the learning and have a great day!

Source: This work is adapted from Sophia author Erick Taggart.

TERMS TO KNOW
  • Introversion

    Individuals who find energy from being alone, often have a few close friends.

  • Extroversion

    Social individuals who find energy from being around others, often have a wide array of friends.

  • Archetypes

    Universal thought forms from our species' collective ancestry.