Neuroendocrine regulatory peptide-1 (NERP-1) and neuroendocrine regulatory peptide-2 (NERP-2) are derived from different regions of neurosecretory protein VGF. VGF is the product of nerve growth factor response gene in rat PC12 cells. The amino acid length of human NERP-1 was 26 and that of rat NERP-1 was 25. Both human and rat NERP-2 are 38 amino acid residues. NERPs and vasopressin were co-located in the storage granules of the paraventricular nucleus and supraoptic nucleus of rat and human. NERPs inhibited the release of vasopressin from hypothalamus and pituitary induced by hypertonic saline or angiotensin Ⅱ. Therefore, VGF is the precursor of a variety of bioactive peptides with different neuroendocrine functions. NERPs is a new hypothalamic peptide, which is involved in regulating the dynamic balance of body fluid by regulating the release of vasopressin.